Human parainfluenza viruses
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Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are a group of four distinct serotypesof single-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the paramyxovirus family.
They are the second most common cause of lower respiratory tract infection in younger children. Together, the parainfluenza viruses cause ~75% of the cases of Croup.
Repeated infection throughout the life of the host is not uncommon. Symptoms of later breakouts include upper respiratory tractillness as in a cold and sore throat. The incubation period of all four serotypes is 1 to 7 days. In immunosuppressed people, such as transplant patients, parainfluenza virus infections can cause severepneumonia, which is often fatal.
Parainfluenza viruses last only a few hours in the environment and are inactivated by soap and water.
There are four serotypes. These include:
- HPIV-1 (most common cause of croup; also other upper and lower respiratory tract illnesses typical)
- HPIV-2 (causes croup and other upper and lower respiratory tract illnesses)
- HPIV-3 (associated with bronchiolitis and pneumonia)
- HPIV-4 (includes subtypes 4a and 4b)
- ^ Vainionpää R, Hyypiä T (April 1994). “Biology of parainfluenza viruses“. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 7 (2): 265–75. PMID 8055470.PMC 358320.
- ^ Sable CA, Hayden FG (December 1995). “Orthomyxoviral and paramyxoviral infections in transplant patients”. Infect. Dis. Clin. North Am. 9 (4): 987–1003. PMID 8747776.
- ^ Sato M, Wright PF (October 2008). “Current status of vaccines for parainfluenza virus infections“. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 27(10 Suppl): S123–5. doi:10.1097/INF.0b013e318168b76f. PMID 18820572.
- ^ “CDC – Human Parainfluenza Viruses: Common cold and croup“. Retrieved 2009-03-15.
^ “Parainfluenza Viruses“. Retrieved 2009-03-15.
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