United States Patent: mechanism for control of weather


Richard Moore

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Subject: Weather Modification
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United States Patent 4,686,605 Eastlund August 11, 1987

Method and apparatus for altering a region in the earth's atmosphere, 
ionosphere, and/or magnetosphereWeather Modification 


A method and apparatus for altering at least one selected region which normally 
exists above the earth's surface. The region is excited by electron cyclotron 
resonance heating to thereby increase its charged particle density. In one 
embodiment, circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation is transmitted upward
in a direction substantially parallel to and along a field line which extends 
through the region of plasma to be altered. The radiation is transmitted at a 
frequency which excites electron cyclotron resonance to heat and accelerate the 
charged particles. This increase in energy can cause ionization of neutral 
particles which are then absorbed as part of the region thereby increasing the 
charged particle density of the region.

Inventors: Eastlund; Bernard J. (Spring, TX) Assignee: APTI, Inc. (Los Angeles, 
CA) Appl. No.: 690333 Filed: January 10, 1985

Current U.S. Class: 361/231; 89/1.11; 244/158R; 380/59 Intern'l Class: H05B 
006/64; H05C 003/00; H05H 001/46 Field of Search: 361/230,231 244/158 R 376/100 
89/1.11 380/59

References Cited 

Other References

Liberty Magazine, (2/35) p. 7 N. Tesla.
New York Times (9/22/40) Section 2, p. 7 W. L. Laurence.
New York Times (12/8/15) p. 8 Col. 3.

Primary Examiner: Cangialosi; Salvatore
Attorney, Agent or Firm: MacDonald; Roderick W.


I claim:

1. A method for altering at least one region normally existing
above the earth's surface with electromagnetic radiation using
naturally-occurring and diverging magnetic field lines of the
earth comprising transmitting first electromagnetic radiation
at a frequency between 20 and 7200 kHz from the earth's
surface, said transmitting being conducted essentially at the
outset of transmission substantially parallel to and along at
least one of said field lines, adjusting the frequency of said
first radiation to a value which will excite electron
cyclotron resonance at an initial elevation at least 50 km
above the earth's surface, whereby in the region in which said
electron cyclotron resonance takes place heating, further
ionization, and movement of both charged and neutral particles
is effected, said cyclotron resonance excitation of said
region is continued until the electron concentration of said
region reaches a value of at least 10.sup.6 per cubic
centimeter and has an ion energy of at least 2 ev.

2. The method of claim 1 including the step of providing
artificial particles in said at least one region which are
excited by said electron cyclotron resonance.

3. The method of claim 2 wherein said artificial particles are
provided by injecting same into said at least one region from
an orbiting satellite.

4. The method of claim 1 wherein said threshold excitation of
electron cyclotron resonance is about 1 watt per cubic
centimeter and is sufficient to cause movement of a plasma
region along said diverging magnetic field lines to an
altitude higher than the altitude at which said excitation was

5. The method of claim 4 wherein said rising plasma region
pulls with it a substantial portion of neutral particles of
the atmosphere which exist in or near said plasma region.

6. The method of claim 1 wherein there is provided at least
one separate source of second electromagnetic radiation, said
second radiation having at least one frequency different from
said first radiation, impinging said at least one second
radiation on said region while said region is undergoing
electron cyclotron resonance excitation caused by said first

7. The method of claim 6 wherein said second radiation has a
frequency which is absorbed by said region.

8. The method of claim 6 wherein said region is plasma in the
ionosphere and said second radiation excites plasma waves
within said ionosphere.

9. The method of claim 8 wherein said electron concentration
reaches a value of at least 10.sup.12 per cubic centimeter.

10. The method of claim 8 wherein said excitation of electron
cyclotron resonance is initially carried out within the
ionosphere and is continued for a time sufficient to allow
said region to rise above said ionosphere.

11. The method of claim 1 wherein said excitation of electron
cyclotron resonance is carried out above about 500 kilometers
and for a time of from 0.1 to 1200 seconds such that multiple
heating of said plasma region is achieved by means of
stochastic heating in the magnetosphere.

12. The method of claim 1 wherein said first electromagnetic
radiation is right hand circularly polarized in the northern
hemisphere and left hand circularly polarized in the southern

13. The method of claim 1 wherein said electromagnetic
radiation is generated at the site of a naturally-occurring
hydrocarbon fuel source, said fuel source being located in at
least one of northerly or southerly magnetic latitudes.

14. The method of claim 13 wherein said fuel source is natural
gas and electricity for generating said electromagnetic
radiation is obtained by burning said natural gas in at least
one of magnetohydrodynamic, gas turbine, fuel cell, and EGD
electric generators located at the site where said natural gas
naturally occurs in the earth.

15. The method of claim 14 wherein said site of natural gas is
within the magnetic latitudes that encompass Alaska.



1. Technical Field

This invention relates to a method and apparatus for altering
at least one selected region normally existing above the
earth's surface and more particularly relates to a method and
apparatus for altering said at least one region by initially
transmitting electromagnetic radiation from the earth's
surface essentially parallel to and along naturally-occurring,
divergent magnetic field lines which extend from the earth's
surface through the region or regions to be altered.

2. Background Art

In the late 1950's, it was discovered that naturally-occuring
belts exist at high altitudes above the earth's surface, and
it is now established that these belts result from charged
electrons and ions becoming trapped along the magnetic lines
of force (field lines) of the earth's essentially dipole
magnetic field. The trapped electrons and ions are confined
along the field lines between two magnetic mirrors which exist
at spaced apart points along those field lines. The trapped
electrons and ions move in helical paths around their
particular field lines and "bounce" back and forth between the
magnetic mirrors. These trapped electrons and ions can
oscillate along the field lines for long periods of time.

In the past several years, substantial effort has been made to
understand and explain the phenomena involved in belts of
trapped electrons and ions, and to explore possible ways to
control and use these phenomena for beneficial purposes. For
example, in the late 1950's and early 1960's both the United
States and U.S.S.R. detonated a series of nuclear devices of
various yields to generate large numbers of charged particles
at various altitudes, e.g., 200 kilometers (km) or greater.
This was done in order to establish and study artifical belts
of trapped electrons and ions. These experiments established
that at least some of the extraneous electrons and ions from
the detonated devices did become trapped along field lines in
the earth's magnetosphere to form artificial belts which were
stable for prolonged periods of time. For a discussion of
these experiments see "The Radiation Belt and Magnetosphere",
W. N. Hess, Blaisdell Publishing Co., 1968, pps. 155 et sec.

Other proposals which have been advanced for altering existing
belts of trapped electrons and ions and/or establishing
similar artificial belts include injecting charged particles
from a satellite carrying a payload of radioactive beta-decay
material or alpha emitters; and injecting charged particles
from a satellite-borne electron accelerator. Still another
approach is described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,042,196 wherein a low
energy ionized gas, e.g., hydrogen, is released from a
synchronous orbiting satellite near the apex of a radiation
belt which is naturally-occurring in the earth's magnetosphere
to produce a substantial increase in energetic particle
precipitation and, under certain conditions, produce a limit
in the number of particles that can be stably trapped. This
precipitation effect arises from an enhancement of the
whistler-mode and ion-cyclotron mode interactions that result
from the ionized gas or "cold plasma" injection.

It has also been proposed to release large clouds of barium in
the magnetosphere so that photoionization will increase the
cold plasma density, thereby producing electron precipitation
through enhanced whistler-mode interactions.

However, in all of the above-mentioned approaches, the
mechanisms involved in triggering the change in the trapped
particle phenomena must be actually positioned within the
affected zone, e.g., the magnetosphere, before they can be
actuated to effect the desired change.

The earth's ionosphere is not considered to be a "trapped"
belt since there are few trapped particles therein. The term
"trapped" herein refers to situations where the force of
gravity on the trapped particles is balanced by magnetic
forces rather than hydrostatic or collisional forces. The
charged electrons and ions in the ionosphere also follow
helical paths around magnetic field lines within the
ionosphere but are not trapped between mirrors, as in the case
of the trapped belts in the magnetosphere, since the
gravitational force on the particles is balanced by
collisional or hydrostatic forces.

In recent years, a number of experiments have actually been
carried out to modify the ionosphere in some controlled manner
to investigate the possibility of a beneficial result. For
detailed discussions of these operations see the following
papers: (1) Ionospheric Modification Theory; G. Meltz and F.
W. Perkins; (2) The Platteville High Power Facility; Carrol et
al.; (3) Arecibo Heating Experiments; W. E. Gordon and H. C.
Carlson, Jr.; and (4) Ionospheric Heating by Powerful Radio
Waves; Meltz et al., all published in Radio Science, Vol. 9,
No. 11, November, 1974, at pages 885-888; 889-894; 1041-1047;
and 1049-1063, respectively, all of which are incorporated
herein by reference. In such experiments, certain regions of
the ionosphere are heated to change the electron density and
temperature within these regions. This is accomplished by
transmitting from earth-based antennae high frequency
electromagnetic radiation at a substantial angle to, not
parallel to, the ionosphere's magnetic field to heat the
ionospheric particles primarily by ohmic heating. The electron
temperature of the ionosphere has been raised by hundreds of
degrees in these experiments, and electrons with several
electron volts of energy have been produced in numbers
sufficient to enhance airglow. Electron concentrations have
been reduced by a few percent, due to expansion of the plasma
as a result of increased temperature.

In the Elmo Bumpy Torus (EBT), a controlled fusion device at
the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, all heating is provided by
microwaves at the electron cyclotron resonance interaction. A
ring of hot electrons is formed at the earth's surface in the
magnetic mirror by a combination of electron cyclotron
resonance and stochastic heating. In the EBT, the ring
electrons are produced with an average "temperature" of 250
kilo electron volts or kev (2.5.times.10.sup.9 K) and a plasma
beta between 0.1 and 0.4; see, "A Theoretical Study of
Electron--Cyclotron Absorption in Elmo Bumpy Torus", Batchelor
and Goldfinger, Nuclear Fusion, Vol. 20, No. 4 (1980) pps.

Electron cyclotron resonance heating has been used in
experiments on the earth's surface to produce and accelerate
plasmas in a diverging magnetic field. Kosmahl et al. showed
that power was transferred from the electromagnetic waves and
that a fully ionized plasma was accelerated with a divergence
angle of roughly 13 degrees. Optimum neutral gas density was
1.7.times.10.sup.14 per cubic centimeter; see, "Plasma
Acceleration with Microwaves Near Cyclotron Resonance",
Kosmahl et al., Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 38, No. 12,
Nov., 1967, pps. 4576-4582.


The present invention provides a method and apparatus for
altering at least one selected region which normally exists
above the earth's surface. The region is excited by electron
cyclotron resonance heating of electrons which are already
present and/or artifically created in the region to thereby
increase the charged particle energy and ultimately the
density of the region.

In one embodiment this is done by transmitting circularly
polarized electromagnetic radiation from the earth's surface
at or near the location where a naturally-occurring dipole
magnetic field (force) line intersects the earth's surface.
Right hand circular polarization is used in the northern
hemisphere and left hand circular polarization is used in the
southern hemisphere. The radiation is deliberately transmitted
at the outset in a direction substantially parallel to and
along a field line which extends upwardly through the region
to be altered. The radiation is transmitted at a frequency
which is based on the gyrofrequency of the charged particles
and which, when applied to the at least one region, excites
electron cyclotron resonance within the region or regions to
heat and accelerate the charged particles in their respective
helical paths around and along the field line. Sufficient
energy is employed to cause ionization of neutral particles
(molecules of oxygen, nitrogen and the like, particulates,
etc.) which then become a part of the region thereby
increasing the charged particle density of the region. This
effect can further be enhanced by providing artificial
particles, e.g., electrons, ions, etc., directly into the
region to be affected from a rocket, satellite, or the like to
supplement the particles in the naturally-occurring plasma.
These artificial particles are also ionized by the transmitted
electromagnetic radiation thereby increasing charged particle
density of the resulting plasma in the region.

In another embodiment of the invention, electron cyclotron
resonance heating is carried out in the selected region or
regions at sufficient power levels to allow a plasma present
in the region to generate a mirror force which forces the
charged electrons of the altered plasma upward along the force
line to an altitude which is higher than the original
altitude. In this case the relevant mirror points are at the
base of the altered region or regions. The charged electrons
drag ions with them as well as other particles that may be
present. Sufficient power, e.g., 10.sup.15 joules, can be
applied so that the altered plasma can be trapped on the field
line between mirror points and will oscillate in space for
prolonged periods of time. By this embodiment, a plume of
altered plasma can be established at selected locations for
communication modification or other purposes.

In another embodiment, this invention is used to alter at
least one selected region of plasma in the ionosphere to
establish a defined layer of plasma having an increased
charged particle density. Once this layer is established, and
while maintaining the transmission of the main beam of
circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation, the main beam
is modulated and/or at least one second different, modulated
electromagnetic radiation beam is transmitted from at least
one separate source at a different frequency which will be
absorbed in the plasma layer. The amplitude of the frequency
of the main beam and/or the second beam or beams is modulated
in resonance with at least one known oscillation mode in the
selected region or regions to excite the known oscillation
mode to propagate a known frequency wave or waves throughout
the ionosphere.


The actual construction, operation, and apparent advantages of
this invention will be better understood by referring to the
drawings in which like numerals identify like parts and in

FIG. 1 is a simplified schematical view of the earth (not to
scale) with a magnetic field (force) line along which the
present invention is carried out;

FIG. 2 is one embodiment within the present invention in which
a selected region of plasma is raised to a higher altitude;

FIG. 3 is a simplified, idealized representation of a physical
phenomenon involved in the present invention; and

FIG. 4 is a schematic view of another embodiment within the
present invention.

FIG. 5 is a schematic view of an apparatus embodiment within
this invention .


The earth's magnetic field is somewhat analogous to a dipole
bar magnet. As such, the earth's magnetic field contains
numerous divergent field or force lines, each line
intersecting the earth's surface at points on opposite sides
of the Equator. The field lines which intersect the earth's
surface near the poles have apexes which lie at the furthest
points in the earth's magnetosphere while those closest to the
Equator have apexes which reach only the lower portion of the

At various altitudes above the earth's surface, e.g., in both
the ionosphere and the magnetosphere, plasma is naturally
present along these field lines. This plasma consists of equal
numbers of positively and negatively charged particles (i.e.,
electrons and ions) which are guided by the field line. It is
well established that a charged particle in a magnetic field
gyrates about field lines, the center of gyration at any
instance being called the "guiding center" of the particle. As
the gyrating particle moves along a field line in a uniform
field, it will follow a helical path about its guiding center,
hence linear motion, and will remain on the field line.
Electrons and ions both follow helical paths around a field
line but rotate in opposite directions. The frequencies at
which the electrons and ions rotate about the field line are
called gyromagnetic frequencies or cyclotron frequencies
because they are identical with the expression for the angular
frequencies of gyration of particles in a cyclotron. The
cyclotron frequency of ions in a given magnetic field is less
than that of electrons, in inverse proportion to their masses.

If the particles which form the plasma along the earth's field
lines continued to move with a constant pitch angle, often
designated "alpha", they would soon impact on the earth's
surface. Pitch angle alpha is defined as the angle between the
direction of the earth's magnetic field and the velocity (V)
of the particle. However, in converging force fields, the
pitch angle does change in such a way as to allow the particle
to turn around and avoid impact. Consider a particle moving
along a field line down toward the earth. It moves into a
region of increasing magnetic field strength and therefore
sine alpha increases. But sine alpha can only increase to 1.0,
at which point, the particle turns around and starts moving up
along the field line, and alpha decreases. The point at which
the particle turns around is called the mirror point, and
there alpha equals ninety degrees. This process is repeated at
the other end of the field line where the same magnetic field
strength value B, namely Bm, exists. The particle again turns
around and this is called the "conjugate point" of the
original mirror point. The particle is therefore trapped and
bounces between the two magnetic mirrors. The particle can
continue oscillating in space in this manner for long periods
of time. The actual place where a particle will mirror can be
calculated from the following:

sin.sup.2 alpha.sub.o =B.sub.o /B.sub.m (1)


alpha.sub.o =equatorial pitch angle of particle

B.sub.o =equatorial field strength on a particular field line

B.sub.m =field strength at the mirror point

Recent discoveries have established that there are substantial
regions of naturally trapped particles in space which are
commonly called "trapped radiation belts". These belts occur
at altitudes greater than about 500 km and accordingly lie in
the magnetosphere and mostly above the ionosphere.

The ionosphere, while it may overlap some of the
trapped-particle belts, is a region in which hydrostatic
forces govern its particle distribution in the gravitational
field. Particle motion within the ionosphere is governed by
both hydrodynamic and electrodynamic forces. While there are
few trapped particles in the ionosphere, nevertheless, plasma
is present along field lines in the ionosphere. The charged
particles which form this plasma move between collisions with
other particles along similar helical paths around the field
lines and although a particular particle may diffuse downward
into the earth's lower atmosphere or lose energy and diverge
from its original field line due to collisions with other
particles, these charged particles are normally replaced by
other available charged particles or by particles that are
ionized by collision with said particle. The electron density
(N.sub.e) of the plasma will vary with the actual conditions
and locations involved. Also, neutral particles, ions, and
electrons are present in proximity to the field lines.

The production of enhanced ionization will also alter the
distribution of atomic and molecular constituents of the
atmosphere, most notably through increased atomic nitrogen
concentration. The upper atmosphere is normally rich in atomic
oxygen (the dominant atmospheric constituent above 200 km
altitude), but atomic nitrogen is normally relatively rare.
This can be expected to manifest itself in increased airglow,
among other effects.

As known in plasma physics, the characteristics of a plasma
can be altered by adding energy to the charged particles or by
ionizing or exciting additional particles to increase the
density of the plasma. One way to do this is by heating the
plasma which can be accomplished in different ways, e.g.,
ohmic, magnetic compression, shock waves, magnetic pumping,
electron cyclotron resonance, and the like.

Since electron cyclotron resonance heating is involved in the
present invention, a brief discussion of same is in order.
Increasing the energy of electrons in a plasma by invoking
electron cyclotron resonance heating, is based on a principle
similar to that utilized to accelerate charged particles in a
cyclotron. If a plasma is confined by a static axial magnetic
field of strength B, the charged particles will gyrate about
the lines of force with a frequency given, in hertz, as
f.sub.g =1.54.times.10.sup.3 B/A, where: B=magnetic field
strength in gauss, and A=mass number of the ion.

Suppose a time-varying field of this frequency is superimposed
on the static field B confining the plasma, by passage of a
radiofrequency current through a coil which is concentric with
that producing the axial field, then in each half-cycle of
their rotation about the field lines, the charged particles
acquire energy from the oscillating electric field associated
with the radio frequency. For example, if B is 10,000 gauss,
the frequency of the field which is in resonance with protons
in a plasma is 15.4 megahertz.

As applied to electrons, electron cyclotron resonance heating
requires an oscillating field having a definite frequency
determined by the strength of the confining field. The
radio-frequency radiation produces time-varying fields
(electric and magnetic), and the electric field accelerates
the charged particle. The energized electrons share their
energy with ions and neutrals by undergoing collisions with
these particles, thereby effectively raising the temperature
of the electrons, ions, and neutrals. The apportionment of
energy among these species is determined by collision
frequencies. For a more detailed understanding of the physics
involved, see "Controlled Thermonuclear Reactions", Glasstone
and Lovberg, D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., Princeton, N.J.,
1960 and "The Radiation Belt and Magnetosphere", Hess,
Blaisdell Publishing Company, 1968, both of which are
incorporated herein by reference.

Referring now to the drawings, the present invention provides
a method and apparatus for altering at least one region of
plasma which lies along a field line, particularly when it
passes through the ionosphere and/or magnetosphere. FIG. 1 is
a simplified illustration of the earth 10 and one of its
dipole magnetic force or field lines 11. As will be
understood, line 11 may be any one of the numerous naturally
existing field lines and the actual geographical locations 13
and 14 of line 11 will be chosen based on a particular
operation to be carried out. The actual locations at which
field lines intersect the earth's surface is documented and is
readily ascertainable by those skilled in the art.

Line 11 passes through region R which lies at an altitude
above the earth's surface. A wide range of altitudes are
useful given the power that can be employed by the practice of
this invention. The electron cyclotron resonance heating
effect can be made to act on electrons anywhere above the
surface of the earth. These electrons may be already present
in the atmosphere, ionosphere, and/or magnetosphere of the
earth, or can be artificially generated by a variety of means
such as x-ray beams, charged particle beams, lasers, the
plasma sheath surrounding an object such as a missile or
meteor, and the like. Further, artificial particles, e.g.,
electrons, ions, etc., can be injected directly into region R
from an earth-launched rocket or orbiting satellite carrying,
for example, a payload of radioactive beta-decay material;
alpha emitters; an electron accelerator; and/or ionized gases
such as hydrogen; see U.S. Pat. No. 4,042,196. The altitude
can be greater than about 50 km if desired, e.g., can be from
about 50 km to about 800 km, and, accordingly may lie in
either the ionosphere or the magnetosphere or both. As
explained above, plasma will be present along line 11 within
region R and is represented by the helical line 12. Plasma 12
is comprised of charged particles (i.e., electrons and ions)
which rotate about opposing helical paths along line 11.

Antenna 15 is positioned as close as is practical to the
location 14 where line 11 intersects the earth's surface.
Antenna 15 may be of any known construction for high
directionality, for example, a phased array, beam spread angle
(.theta.) type. See "The MST Radar at Poker Flat, Alaska",
Radio Science, Vol. 15, No. 2, Mar.-Apr. 1980, pps. 213-223,
which is incorporated herein by reference. Antenna 15 is
coupled to transmitter 16 which generates a beam of high
frequency electromagnetic radiation at a wide range of
discrete frequencies, e.g., from about 20 to about 1800
kilohertz (kHz).

Transmitter 16 is powered by power generator means 17 which is
preferably comprised of one or more large, commercial
electrical generators. Some embodiments of the present
invention require large amounts of power, e.g., up to 10.sup.9
to 10.sup.11 watts, in continuous wave or pulsed power.
Generation of the needed power is within the state of the art.
Although the electrical generators necessary for the practice
of the invention can be powered in any known manner, for
example, by nuclear reactors, hydroelectric facilities,
hydrocarbon fuels, and the like, this invention, because of
its very large power requirement in certain applications, is
particularly adapted for use with certain types of fuel
sources which naturally occur at strategic geographical
locations around the earth. For example, large reserves of
hydrocarbons (oil and natural gas) exist in Alaska and Canada.
In northern Alaska, particularly the North Slope region, large
reserves are currently readily available. Alaska and northern
Canada also are ideally located geographically as to magnetic
latitudes. Alaska provides easy access to magnetic field lines
that are especially suited to the practice of this invention,
since many field lines which extend to desirable altitudes for
this invention intersect the earth in Alaska. Thus, in Alaska,
there is a unique combination of large, accessible fuel
sources at desirable field line intersections. Further, a
particularly desirable fuel source for the generation of very
large amounts of electricity is present in Alaska in
abundance, this source being natural gas. The presence of very
large amounts of clean-burning natural gas in Alaskan
latitudes, particularly on the North Slope, and the
availability of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), gas turbine, fuel
cell, electrogasdynamic (EGD) electric generators which
operate very efficiently with natural gas provide an ideal
power source for the unprecedented power requirements of
certain of the applications of this invention. For a more
detailed discussion of the various means for generating
electricity from hydrocarbon fuels, see "Electrical Aspects of
Combustion", Lawton and Weinberg, Clarendon Press, 1969. For
example, it is possible to generate the electricity directly
at the high frequency needed to drive the antenna system. To
do this, typically the velocity of flow of the combustion
gases (v), past magnetic field perturbation of dimension d (in
the case of MHD), follow the rule:


where f is the frequency at which electricity is generated.
Thus, if v=1.78.times.10.sup.6 cm/sec and d=1 cm then
electricity would be generated at a frequency of 1.78 mHz.

Put another way, in Alaska, the right type of fuel (natural
gas) is naturally present in large amounts and at just the
right magnetic latitudes for the most efficient practice of
this invention, a truly unique combination of circumstances.
Desirable magnetic latitudes for the practice of this
invention interest the earth's surface both northerly and
southerly of the equator, particularly desirable latitudes
being those, both northerly and southerly, which correspond in
magnitude with the magnetic latitudes that encompass Alaska.

Referring now to FIG. 2 a first ambodiment is illustrated
where a selected region R.sub.1 of plasma 12 is altered by
electron cyclotron resonance heating to accelerate the
electrons of plasma 12, which are following helical paths
along field line 11.

To accomplish this result, electromagnetic radiation is
transmitted at the outset, essentially parallel to line 11 via
antenna 15 as right hand circularly polarized radiation wave
20. Wave 20 has a frequency which will excite electron
cyclotron resonance with plasma 12 at its initial or original
altitude. This frequency will vary depending on the electron
cyclotron resonance of region R.sub.1 which, in turn, can be
determined from available data based on the altitudes of
region R.sub.1, the particular field line 11 being used, the
strength of the earth's magnetic field, etc. Frequencies of
from about 20 to about 7200 kHz, preferably from about 20 to
about 1800 kHz can be employed. Also, for any given
application, there will be a threshhold (minimum power level)
which is needed to produce the desired result. The minimum
power level is a function of the level of plasma production
and movement required, taking into consideration any loss
processes that may be dominant in a particular plasma or
propagation path.

As electron cyclotron resonance is established in plasma 12,
energy is transferred from the electromagnetic radiation 20
into plasma 12 to heat and accelerate the electrons therein
and, subsequently, ions and neutral particles. As this process
continues, neutral particles which are present within R.sub.1
are ionized and absorbed into plasma 12 and this increases the
electron and ion densities of plasma 12. As the electron
energy is raised to values of about 1 kilo electron volt
(kev), the generated mirror force (explained below) will
direct the excited plasma 12 upward along line 11 to form a
plume R.sub.2 at an altitude higher than that of R.sub.1.

Plasma acceleration results from the force on an electron
produced by a nonuniform static magnetic field (B). The force,
called the mirror force, is given by

F=-.mu..gradient.B (2)

where .mu. is the electron magnetic moment and .gradient. B is
the gradient of the magnetic field, .mu. being further defined

W.sub..perp. /B=mV.sub..perp..sup.2 /2B

where W.sub..perp. is the kinetic energy in the direction
perpendicular to that of the magnetic field lines and B is the
magnetic field strength at the line of force on which the
guiding center of the particle is located. The force as
represented by equation (2) is the force which is responsible
for a particle obeying equation (1).

Since the magnetic field is divergent in region R.sub.1, it
can be shown that the plasma will move upwardly from the
heating region as shown in FIG. 1 and further it can be shown

1/2M.sub.e V.sub.e.perp..sup.2 (x).apprxeq.1/2M.sub.e
V.sub.e.perp..sup.2 (Y)+1/2M.sub.i V.sub.i.parallel..sup.2 (Y)

where the left hand side is the initial electron transverse
kinetic energy; the first term on the right is the transverse
electron kinetic energy at some point (Y) in the expanded
field region, while the final term is the ion kinetic energy
parallel to B at point (Y). This last term is what constitutes
the desired ion flow. It is produced by an electrostatic field
set up by electrons which are accelerated according to
Equation (2) in the divergent field region and pulls ions
along with them. Equation (3) ignores electron kinetic energy
parallel to B because V.sub.e.parallel.
.apprxeq.V.sub.i.parallel., so the bulk of parallel kinetic
energy resides in the ions because of their greater masses.
For example, if an electromagnetic energy flux of from about 1
to about 10 watts per square centimeter is applied to region
R, whose altitude is 115 km, a plasma having a density
(N.sub.e) of 10.sup.12 per cubic centimeter will be generated
and moved upward to region R.sub.2 which has an altitude of
about 1000 km. The movement of electrons in the plasma is due
to the mirror force while the ions are moved by ambipolar
diffusion (which results from the electrostatic field). This
effectively "lifts" a layer of plasma 12 from the ionosphere
and/or magnetosphere to a higher elevation R.sub.2. The total
energy required to create a plasma with a base area of 3
square kilometers and a height of 1000 km is about
3.times.10.sup.13 joules.

FIG. 3 is an idealized representation of movement of plasma 12
upon excitation by electron cyclotron resonance within the
earth's divergent force field. Electrons (e) are accelerated
to velocities required to generate the necessary mirror force
to cause their upward movement. At the same time neutral
particles (n) which are present along line 11 in region
R.sub.1 are ionized and become part of plasma 12. As electrons
(e) move upward along line 11, they drag ions (i) and neutrals
(n) with them but at an angle .theta. of about 13 degrees to
field line 11. Also, any particulates that may be present in
region R.sub.1, will be swept upwardly with the plasma. As the
charged particles of plasma 12 move upward, other particles
such as neutrals within or below R.sub.1, move in to replace
the upwardly moving particles. These neutrals, under some
conditions, can drag with them charged particles.

For example, as a plasma moves upward, other particles at the
same altitude as the plasma move horizontally into the region
to replace the rising plasma and to form new plasma. The
kinetic energy developed by said other particles as they move
horizontally is, for example, on the same order of magnitude
as the total zonal kinetic energy of stratospheric winds known
to exist.

Referring again to FIG. 2, plasma 12 in region R.sub.1 is
moved upward along field line 11. The plasma 12 will then form
a plume (cross-hatched area in FIG. 2) which will be
relatively stable for prolonged periods of time. The exact
period of time will vary widely and be determined by
gravitational forces and a combination of radiative and
diffusive loss terms. In the previous detailed example, the
calculations were based on forming a plume by producing
0.sup.+ energies of 2 ev/particle. About 10 ev per particle
would be required to expand plasma 12 to apex point C (FIG.
1). There at least some of the particles of plasma 12 will be
trapped and will oscillate between mirror points along field
line 11. This oscillation will then allow additional heating
of the trapped plasma 12 by stochastic heating which is
associated with trapped and oscillating particles. See "A New
Mechanism for Accelerating Electrons in the Outer Ionosphere"
by R. A. Helliwell and T. F. Bell, Journal of Geophysical
Research, Vol. 65, No. 6, June, 1960. This is preferably
carried out at an altitude of at least 500 km.

The plasma of the typical example might be employed to modify
or disrupt microwave transmissions of satellites. If less than
total black-out of transmission is desired (e.g., scrambling
by phase shifting digital signals), the density of the plasma
(N.sub.e) need only be at least about 10.sup.6 per cubic
centimeter for a plasma orginating at an altitude of from
about 250 to about 400 km and accordingly less energy (i.e.,
electromagnetic radiation), e.g., 10.sup.8 joules need be
provided. Likewise, if the density N.sub.e is on the order of
10.sup.8, a properly positioned plume will provide a
reflecting surface for VHF waves and can be used to enhance,
interfere with, or otherwise modify communication
transmissions. It can be seen from the foregoing that by
appropriate application of various aspects of this invention
at strategic locations and with adequate power sources, a
means and method is provided to cause interference with or
even total disruption of communications over a very large
portion of the earth. This invention could be employed to
disrupt not only land based communications, both civilian and
military, but also airborne communications and sea
communications (both surface and subsurface). This would have
significant military implications, particularly as a barrier
to or confusing factor for hostile missiles or airplanes. The
belt or belts of enhanced ionization produced by the method
and apparatus of this invention, particularly if set up over
Northern Alaska and Canada, could be employed as an early
warning device, as well as a communications disruption medium.
Further, the simple ability to produce such a situation in a
practical time period can by itself be a deterring force to
hostile action. The ideal combination of suitable field lines
intersecting the earth's surface at the point where
substantial fuel sources are available for generation of very
large quantitities of electromagnetic power, such as the North
Slope of Alaska, provides the wherewithal to accomplish the
foregoing in a practical time period, e.g., strategic
requirements could necessitate achieving the desired altered
regions in time periods of two minutes or less and this is
achievable with this invention, especially when the
combination of natural gas and magnetohydrodynamic, gas
turbine, fuel cell and/or EGD electric generators are employed
at the point where the useful field lines intersect the
earth's surface. One feature of this invention which satisfies
a basic requirement of a weapon system, i.e., continuous
checking of operability, is that small amounts of power can be
generated for operability checking purposes. Further, in the
exploitation of this invention, since the main electromagnetic
beam which generates the enhanced ionized belt of this
invention can be modulated itself and/or one or more
additional electromagnetic radiation waves can be impinged on
the ionized region formed by this invention as will be
described in greater detail herein after with respect to FIG.
4, a substantial amount of randomly modulated signals of very
large power magnitude can be generated in a highly nonlinear
mode. This can cause confusion of or interference with or even
complete disruption of guidance systems employed by even the
most sophisticated of airplanes and missiles. The ability to
employ and transmit over very wide areas of the earth a
plurality of electromagnetic waves of varying frequencies and
to change same at will in a random manner, provides a unique
ability to interfere with all modes of communications, land,
sea, and/or air, at the same time. Because of the unique
juxtaposition of usable fuel source at the point where
desirable field lines intersect the earth's surface, such wide
ranging and complete communication interference can be
achieved in a resonably short period of time. Because of the
mirroring phenomenon discussed hereinabove, it can also be
prolonged for substantial time periods so that it would not be
a mere transient effect that could simply be waited out by an
opposing force. Thus, this invention provides the ability to
put unprecedented amounts of power in the earth's atmosphere
at strategic locations and to maintain the power injection
level, particularly if random pulsing is employed, in a manner
far more precise and better controlled than heretofore
accomplished by the prior art, particularly by the detonation
of nuclear devices of various yeilds at various altitudes.
Where the prior art approaches yielded merely transitory
effects, the unique combination of fuel and desirable field
lines at the point where the fuel occurs allows the
establishment of, compared to prior art approaches, precisely
controlled and long-lasting effects which cannot, practically
speaking, simply be waited out. Further, by knowing the
frequencies of the various electromagnetic beams employed in
the practice of this invention, it is possible not only to
interfere with third party communications but to take
advantage of one or more such beams to carry out a
communications network even though the rest of the world's
communications are disrupted. Put another way, what is used to
disrupt another's communications can be employed by one
knowledgeable of this invention as a communications network at
the same time. In addition, once one's own communication
network is established, the far-reaching extent of the effects
of this invention could be employed to pick up communication
signals of other for intelligence purposes. Thus, it can be
seen that the disrupting effects achievable by this invention
can be employed to benefit by the party who is practicing this
invention since knowledge of the various electromagnetic waves
being employed and how they will vary in frequency and
magnitude can be used to an advantage for positive
communication and eavesdropping purposes at the same time.
However, this invention is not limited to locations where the
fuel source naturally exists or where desirable field lines
naturally intersect the earth's surface. For example, fuel,
particularly hydrocarbon fuel, can be transported by pipeline
and the like to the location where the invention is to be

FIG. 4 illustrates another embodiment wherein a selected
region of plasma R.sub.3 which lies within the earth's
ionosphere is altered to increase the density thereof whereby
a relatively stable layer 30 of relatively dense plasma is
maintained within region R.sub.3. Electromagnetic radiation is
transmitted at the outset essentially parallel to field line
11 via antenna 15 as a right hand circularly polarized wave
and at a frequency (e.g., 1.78 megahertz when the magnetic
field at the desired altitude is 0.66 gauss) capable of
exciting electron cyclotron resonance in plasma 12 at the
particular altitude of plasma 12. This causes heating of the
particles (electrons, ions, neutrals, and particulates) and
ionization of the uncharged particles adjacent line 11, all of
which are absorbed into plasma 12 to increase the density
thereof. The power transmitted, e.g., 2.times.10.sup.6 watts
for up to 2 minutes heating time, is less than that required
to generate the mirror force F required to move plasma 12
upward as in the previous embodiment.

While continuing to transmit electromagnetic radiation 20 from
antenna 15, a second electromagnetic radiation beam 31, which
is at a defined frequency different from the radiation from
antenna 15, is transmitted from one or more second sources via
antenna 32 into layer 30 and is absorbed into a portion of
layer 30 (cross-hatched area in FIG. 4). The electromagnetic
radiation wave from antenna 32 is amplitude modulated to match
a known mode of oscillation f.sub.3 in layer 30. This creates
a resonance in layer 30 which excites a new plasma wave 33
which also has a frequency of f.sub.3 and which then
propogates through the ionosphere. Wave 33 can be used to
improve or disrupt communications or both depending on what is
desired in a particular application. Of course, more than one
new wave 33 can be generated and the various new waves can be
modulated at will and in a highly nonlinear fashion.

FIG. 5 shows apparatus useful in this invention, particularly
when those applications of this invention are employed which
require extremely large amounts of power. In FIG. 5 there is
shown the earth's surface 40 with a well 41 extending
downwardly thereinto until it penetrates hydrocarbon producing
reservoir 42. Hydrocarbon reservoir 42 produces natural gas
alone or in combination with crude oil. Hydrocarbons are
produced from reservoir 42 through well 41 and wellhead 43 to
a treating system 44 by way of pipe 45. In treater 44,
desirable liquids such as crude oil and gas condensates are
separated and recovered by way of pipe 46 while undesirable
gases and liquids such as water, H.sub.2 S, and the like are
separated by way of pipe 47. Desirable gases such as carbon
dioxide are separated by way of pipe 48, and the remaining
natural gas stream is removed from treater 44 by way of pipe
49 for storage in conventional tankage means (not shown) for
future use and/or use in an electrical generator such as a
magnetohydrodynamic, gas turbine, fuel cell or EGD generator
50. Any desired number and combination of different types of
electric generators can be employed in the practice of this
invention. The natural gas is burned in generator 50 to
produce substantial quantities of electricity which is then
stored and/or passed by way of wire 51 to a transmitter 52
which generates the electromagnetic radiation to be used in
the method of this invention. The electromagnetic radiation is
then passed by way of wire 53 to antenna 54 which is located
at or near the end of field line 11. Antenna 54 sends
circularly polarized radiation wave 20 upwards along field
line 11 to carry out the various methods of this invention as
described hereinabove.

Of course, the fuel source need not be used in its
naturally-occurring state but could first be converted to
another second energy source form such as hydrogen, hydrazine
and the like, and electricity then generated from said second
energy source form.

It can be seen from the foregoing that when desirable field
line 11 intersects earth's surface 40 at or near a large
naturally-occurring hydrocarbon source 42, exceedingly large
amounts of power can be very efficiently produced and
transmitted in the direction of field lines. This is
particularly so when the fuel source is natural gas and
magnetohydrodynamic generators are employed. Further, this can
all be accomplished in a relatively small physical area when
there is the unique coincidence of fuel source 42 and
desirable field line 11. Of course, only one set of equipment
is shown in FIG. 5 for sake of simplicity. For a large
hydrocarbon reservoir 42, a plurality of wells 41 can be
employed to feed one or more storage means and/or treaters and
as large a number of generators 55 as needed to power one or
more transmitters 52 and one or more antennas 54. Since all of
the apparatus 44 through 54 can be employed and used
essentially at the sight where naturally-occurring fuel source
42 is located, all the necessary electromagnetic radiation 20
is generated essentially at the same location as fuel source
42. This provides for a maximum amount of usable
electromagnetic radiation 20 since there are no significant
storage or transportation losses to be incurred. In other
words, the apparatus is brought to the sight of the fuel
source where desirable field line 11 intersects the earth's
surface 40 on or near the geographical location of fuel source
42, fuel source 42 being at a desirable magnetic latitude for
the practice of this invention, for example, Alaska.

The generation of electricity by motion of a conducting fluid
through a magnetic field, i.e., magnetohydrodynamics (MHD),
provides a method of electric power generation without moving
mechanical parts and when the conducting fluid is a plasma
formed by combustion of a fuel such as natural gas, an
idealized combination of apparatus is realized since the very
clean-burning natural gas forms the conducting plasma in an
efficient manner and the thus formed plasma, when passed
through a magnetic field, generates electricity in a very
efficient manner. Thus, the use of fuel source 42 to generate
a plasma by combustion thereof for the generation of
electricity essentially at the site of occurrence of the fuel
source is unique and ideal when high power levels are required
and desirable field lines 11 intersect the earth's surface 40
at or near the site of fuel source 42. A particular advantage
for MHD generators is that they can be made to generate large
amounts of power with a small volume, light weight device. For
example, a 1000 megawatt MHD generator can be construed using
superconducting magnets to weigh roughly 42,000 pounds and can
be readily air lifted.

This invention has a phenomenal variety of possible
ramifications and potential future developments. As alluded to
earlier, missile or aircraft destruction, deflection, or
confusion could result, particularly when relativistic
particles are employed. Also, large regions of the atmosphere
could be lifted to an unexpectedly high altitude so that
missiles encounter unexpected and unplanned drag forces with
resultant destruction or deflection of same. Weather
modification is possible by, for example, altering upper
atmosphere wind patterns or altering solar absorption patterns
by constructing one or more plumes of atmospheric particles
which will act as a lens or focusing device. Also as alluded
to earlier, molecular modifications of the atmosphere can take
place so that positive environmental effects can be achieved.
Besides actually changing the molecular composition of an
atmospheric region, a particular molecule or molecules can be
chosen for increased presence. For example, ozone, nitrogen,
etc. concentrations in the atmosphere could be artificially
increased. Similarly, environmental enhancement could be
achieved by causing the breakup of various chemical entities
such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxides, and
the like. Transportation of entities can also be realized when
advantage is taken of the drag effects caused by regions of
the atmosphere moving up along diverging field lines. Small
micron sized particles can be then transported, and, under
certain circumstances and with the availability of sufficient
energy, larger particles or objects could be similarly
affected. Particles with desired characteristics such as
tackiness, reflectivity, absorptivity, etc., can be
transported for specific purposes or effects. For example, a
plume of tacky particles could be established to increase the
drag on a missile or satellite passing therethrough. Even
plumes of plasma having substantially less charged particle
density than described above will produce drag effects on
missiles which will affect a lightweight (dummy) missile in a
manner substantially different than a heavy (live) missile and
this affect can be used to distinguish between the two types
of missiles. A moving plume could also serve as a means for
supplying a space station or for focusing vast amount of
sunlight on selected portions of the earth. Surveys of global
scope could also be realized because the earth's natural
magnetic field could be significantly altered in a controlled
manner by plasma beta effects resulting in, for example,
improved magnetotelluric surveys. Electromagnetic pulse
defenses are also possible. The earth's magnetic field could
be decreased or disrupted at appropriate altitudes to modify
or eliminate the magnetic field in high Compton electron
generation (e.g., from high altitude nuclear bursts) regions.
High intensity, well controlled electrical fields can be
provided in selected locations for various purposes. For
example, the plasma sheath surrounding a missile or satellite
could be used as a trigger for activating such a high
intensity field to destroy the missile or satellite. Further,
irregularities can be created in the ionosphere which will
interfere with the normal operation of various types of radar,
e.g., synthetic aperture radar. The present invention can also
be used to create artificial belts of trapped particles which
in turn can be studied to determine the stability of such
parties. Still further, plumes in accordance with the present
invention can be formed to simulate and/or perform the same
functions as performed by the detonation of a "heave" type
nuclear device without actually having to detonate such a
device. Thus it can be seen that the ramifications are
numerous, far-reaching, and exceedingly varied in usefulness.


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Richard Moore (rkm)
Wexford, Ireland
blog: http://harmonization.blogspot.com/

"Escaping The Matrix - 
Global Transformation: 
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