Timeline of the Progress Toward a North American Union


Richard Moore

Original source URL:

Timeline of the Progress Toward a North American Union

Canadian, U.S., and Mexican elites, including CEOS and politicians, have a plan 
to create common North American policies and further integrate our economies. 
This plan goes by various names and euphemisms, such as "deep integration", 
"NAFTA-plus", "harmonization", the "Big Idea", the "Grand Bargain", and the 
"North American Security and Prosperity Initiative". Regardless of which name 
your prefer, the end goal of all of these plans is to create a new political and
economic entity that would supercede the existing countries. Advocates refer to 
it as a "North American Community", but it is also known as the North American 
Union (NAU). Theoretically, it would be similar to and competetive with the 
European Union (EU). The individual currencies of each country would be replaced
by a common currency called the "Amero" and everything from environmental 
regulations to security would be brought in line with a common standard.

Vive le Canada.ca offers the following timeline as a resource to educate the 
general public about the progress of the three countries toward a new North 
American Union (NAU).

Vive le Canada.ca opposes the creation of the North American Union (NAU) because
we believe it will mean the loss of Canadian sovereignty and democracy and hand 
over more power to giant, unelected corporations. We also believe that unlike 
the EU, the countries joining the NAU are not roughly equal in size and power 
and that this means the U.S. will most certainly be setting policy for all three
countries. Considering the unpopularity of the Bush administration and its 
policies in the U.S., Canada, and around the world we believe that erasing the 
borders between our countries and adopting U.S. policies at this time is a bad 
idea and will create economic, political and military insecurity in this 
country. We hope that raising awareness about the plan to create a North 
American Union (NAU) will create opposition and encourage debate in all three 
countries, but especially in Canada.

Note: This timeline is a work in progress and will be updated as events 
progress. If you notice a correction that needs to be made or an event that 
should be included, please email •••@••.•••. Please allow 
time for updates to be made as they will be made less frequently than updates to
the main page of the site.


€ 1921: The Council on Foreign Relations is founded by Edward Mandell House, who
had been the chief advisor of President Woodrow Wilson.

€ 1973: David Rockefeller asks Zbigniew Brzezinski and a few others, including 
from the Brookings Institution, Council on Foreign Relations and the Ford 
Foundation, to put together an organization of the top political, and business 
leaders from around the world. He calls this group the Trilateral Commission 
(TC). The first meeting of the group is held in Tokyo in October. See: 
Trilateral Commission FAQ

€ 1974: Richard Gardner, one of the members of the Trilateral Commission, 
publishes an article titled "The Hard Road to World Order" which appeared in 
Foreign Affairs magazine, published by the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR). 
In the article he wrote: "In short, the 'house of world order' would have to be 
built from the bottom up rather than from the top down. It will look like a 
great 'booming, buzzing confusion,' to use William James' famous description of 
reality, but an end run around national sovereignty, eroding it piece by piece, 
will accomplish much more than the old-fashioned frontal assault." Gardner 
advocated treaties and trade agreements as a means of creating a new economic 
world order. See: The Hard Road to World Order

€ November 13, 1979: While officially declaring his candidacy for U.S. 
President, Ronald Reagan proposes a ³North American Agreement² which will 
produce ³a North American continent in which the goods and people of the three 
countries will cross boundaries more freely.²

€ January 1981: U.S. President Ronald Reagan proposes a North American common 

€ September 4, 1984: Conservative Brian Mulroney is elected Prime Minister of 
Canada after opposing free trade during the campaign.

€ September 25, 1984: Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney meets President 
Reagan in Washington and promises closer relations with the US.

€ October 9, 1984: The US Congress adopts the Trade and Tariff Act, an omnibus 
trade act that notably extends the powers of the president to concede trade 
benefits and enter into bilateral free trade agreements. The Act would be passed
on October 30, 1984.

€ 1985: A Canadian Royal Commission on the economy chaired by former Liberal 
Minister of Finance Donald S. Macdonald issues a report to the Government of 
Canada recommending free trade with the United States.

€ St. Patrick's Day, 1985: Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and President Ronald 
Reagan sing "When Irish Eyes Are Smiling" together to cap off the "Shamrock 
Summit", a 24-hour meeting in Quebec City that opened the door to future free 
trade talks between the countries. Commentator Eric Kierans observed that "The 
general impression you get, is that our prime minister invited his boss home for
dinner." Canadian historian Jack Granatstein said that this "public display of 
sucking up to Reagan may have been the single most demeaning moment in the 
entire political history of Canada's relations with the United States."

€ September 26, 1985: Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney announces that 
Canada will try to reach a free trade agreement with the US.

€ December 10, 1985: U.S. President Reagan officially informs Congress about his
intention to negotiate a free trade agreement with Canada under the authority of
trade promotion. Referred to as fast track, trade promotion authority is an 
accelerated legislative procedure which obliges the House of Representatives and
the Senate to decide within 90 days whether or not to establish a trade trade 
unit. No amendments are permitted.

€ May 1986: Canadian and American negotiators begin to work out a free trade 
deal. The Canadian team is led by former deputy Minister of Finance Simon 
Reisman and the American side by Peter O. Murphy, the former deputy United 
States trade representative in Geneva.

€ October 3, 1987: The 20-chapter Canada­United States Free Trade Agreement 
(CUSFTA or FTA) is finalized. U.S. trade representative Clayton Yeutter offers 
this observation: "We've signed a stunning new trade pact with Canada. The 
Canadians don't understand what they've signed. In twenty years, they will be 
sucked into the U.S. economy."

€ November 6, 1987: Signing of a framework agreement between the US and Mexico.

€ January 2, 1988: Prime Minister Mulroney and President Reagan officially sign 
the FTA.

€ January 1, 1989: The Canada US Free Trade Agreement (CUSFTA or FTA) goes into 

€ June 10, 1990: Presidents Bush (U.S.) and Salinas (Mexico) announce that they 
will begin discussions aimed at liberalizing trade between their countries.

€ August 21, 1990: Mexican President Salinas officially proposes to the US 
president the negotiation of a free trade agreement between Mexico and the US.

€ February 5, 1991: Negotiations between the US and Mexico aimed at liberalizing
trade between the two countries officially become trilateral at the request of 
the Canadian government under Brian Mulroney.

€ April 7 to 10, 1991: Cooperation agreements are signed between Mexico and 
Canada covering taxation, cultural production and exports.

€ May 24, 1991: The American Senate endorses the extension of fast track 
authority in order to facilitate the negotiation of free trade with Mexico.

€ June 12, 1991: Start of trade negotiations between Canada, the US and Mexico.

€ April 4, 1992 Signing in Mexico by Canada and Mexico of a protocol agreement 
on cooperation projects regarding labour.

  € August 12, 1992: Signing of an agreement in principle on NAFTA.

€ September 17, 1992: Creation of a trilateral commission responsible for 
examining cooperation in the area of the environment.

€ October 7, 1992: Official signing of NAFTA by Michael Wilson of Canada 
(minister), American ambassador Carla Hills and Mexican secretary Jaime Serra 
Puche, in San Antonio (Texas).

€ December 17, 1992: Official signing of NAFTA by Canadian Prime Minister Brian 
Mulroney, US president George Bush, and Mexican president Carlos Salinas de 
Gortari, subject to its final approval by the federal Parliaments of the three 

€ March 17 and 18, 1993: Start of tripartite discussions in Washington aimed at 
reaching subsidiary agreements covering labor and the environment.

€ September 14, 1993: Official signing of parallel agreements covering labor and
the environment in the capitals of the three countries.

€ 1993: The Liberal Party under Jean Chretien promises to renegotiate NAFTA in 
its campaign platform, titled "Creating Opportunity: the Liberal Plan for 
Canada" and also known as The Red Book.

€ December 1993: Newly elected Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chretien signs NAFTA
without changes, breaking his promise to renegotiate NAFTA. U.S. President Bill 
Clinton signs NAFTA for the U.S.

€ November 1993: The North American Development Bank (NADB) and its sister 
institution, the Border Environment Cooperation Commission (BECC), are created 
under the auspices of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) to address
environmental issues in the U.S.-Mexico border region. The two institutions 
initiate operations under the November 1993 Agreement Between the Government of 
the United States of America and the Government of the United Mexican States 
Concerning the Establishment of a Border Environment Cooperation Commission and 
a North American Development Bank (the ³Charter²). See: About Us (The North 
American Development Bank)

€ January 1, 1994: NAFTA and the two agreements on labour and the environment go
into effect, replacing CUSFTA.

€ November 16, 1994: Canada and Mexico sign a cooperation agreement regarding 
the peaceful use of nuclear energy.

€ December 1994: The Summit of the Americas is held in Miami. The three 
signatories of NAFTA officially invite Chile to become a contractual party of 
the agreement. The Free Trade Area of the Americas or FTAA is initiated. 
According to the offical FTAA website, "the Heads of State and Government of the
34 democracies in the region agreed to construct a Free Trade Area of the 
Americas, or FTAA, in which barriers to trade and investment will be 
progressively eliminated. They agreed to complete negotiations towards this 
agreement by the year 2005 and to achieve substantial progress toward building 
the FTAA by 2000." See: FTAA

€ December 22, 1994: Mexican monetary authorities decide to let the Peso float. 
The US and Canada open a US$6 billion line of credit for Mexico.

€ January 3, 1995: Mexican president Ernesto Zedillo presents an emergency plan.

  € January 1995: President Clinton announces an aid plan for Mexico.

€ February 9, 1995: Mickey Kantor, the US Foreign Trade representative, 
announces Washington¹s intention to include the provisions of NAFTA regarding 
labor and the environment in negotiations with Chile.

€ February 21, 1995: Signing in Washington of an agreement regarding the 
financial assistance given to Mexico. Mexico in turn promises to pay Mexican oil
export revenue as a guarantee into an account at the Federal Reserve in New 

€ February 28, 1995: Mexico announces the increase of its customs duties on a 
number of imports from countries with which it does not have a free trade 

€ March 9, 1995: President Zedillo presents austerity measures. The plan 
envisages a 50% increase in value added taxes, a 10% reduction of government 
expenditure, a 35% increase in gas prices, a 20% increase in electricity prices 
and a 100% increase in transportation prices. The minimum wage is increased by 
10%. The private sector can benefit from government assistance. The inter-bank 
rate that is reduced to 74% will be increased to 109% on March 15.

€ March 29, 1995: Statistical data on US foreign trade confirms the sharp 
increase in Mexican exports to the US.

€ April 10, 1995: The US dollar reaches its lowest level in history on the 
international market. It depreciated by 50% relative to the Japanese yen in only
four years.

€ June 7, 1995: First meeting of the ministers of Foreign Trade of Canada (Roy 
MacLaren), the US (Mickey Kantor), Mexico (Herminio Blanco) and Chile (Eduardo 
Aninat) to start negotiations.

€ December 29, 1995: Chile and Canada commit to negotiate a bilateral free trade

€ June 3, 1996: Chile and Canada start negotiating the reciprocal opening of 
markets in Santiago.

€ November 18, 1996: Signing in Ottawa of the Canada-Chile free trade agreement 
by Jean Chrétien, Prime Minister of Canada and Eduardo Frei, President of Chile.
The agreement frees 80% of trade between the two countries. It is the first free
trade agreement signed between Chile and a member of the G 7.

  € July 4, 1997: The Canada-Chile free trade agreement comes into effect.

€ 1997: The US presidency proposes applying NAFTA parity to Caribbean countries.

€ April 17, 1998: Signing in Santiago, Chile of the free trade agreement between
Chile and Mexico by President Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de León of Mexico, and 
President Eduardo Frei of Chile.

  € August 1, 1999: The Chile-Mexico free trade agreement comes into effect.

€ September, 1999: The Canadian right-wing think tank the Fraser Institute 
publishes a paper by Herbert G. Grubel titled "The Case for the Amero: The 
Economics and Politics of a North American Monetary Union." In the paper Grubel 
argues that a common currency is not inevitable but it is desirable. See: The 
Case for the Amero

€ July 2, 2000: Vicente Fox Quesada of the National Action Party (PAN), is 
elected president of Mexico, thus ending the reign of the Revolutionary 
Institutional Party (RIP) that had held power for 71 years. Mr. Fox is sworn in 
on 1 December 2000.

€ July 4, 2000: Mexican president Vicente Fox proposes a 20 to 30 year timeline 
for the creation of a common North American market. President Fox¹s ³20/20 
vision² as it is commonly called, includes the following: a customs union, a 
common external tariff, greater coordination of policies, common monetary 
policies, free flow of labor, and fiscal transfers for the development of poor 
Mexican regions. With the model of the European Fund in mind, President Fox 
suggests that US$10 to 30 billion be invested in NAFTA to support underdeveloped
regions. The fund could be administered by an international financial 
institution such as the Inter-American Development Bank.

€ November 27, 2000: Trade negotiations resume between the US and Chile for 
Chile¹s possible entry into NAFTA.

€ 2001: Robert Pastor's 2001 book "Toward a North American Community" is 
published. The book calls for the creation of a North American Union (NAU).

€ April 2001: Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chretien and US President George W. 
Bush sign the Declaration of Quebec City at the third Summit of the Americas: 
³This is a Œcommitment to hemispheric integration." See: Declaration of Quebec 

€ August 30, 2001: The Institute for International Economics issues a press 
release advocating that the United States and Mexico should use the occasion of 
the visit of President Vicente Fox of Mexico on September 4-7 to develop a North
American Community as advocated by Robert Pastor in his book "Toward a North 
American Community." See: A Blueprint for a North American Community

€ September 11, 2001: A series of coordinated suicide terrorist attacks upon the
United States, predominantly targeting civilians, are carried out on Tuesday, 
September 11, 2001. Two planes (United Airlines Flight 175 and American Airlines
Flight 11) crash into the World Trade Center in New York City, one plane into 
each tower (One and Two). Both towers collapse within two hours. The pilot of 
the third team crashes a plane into the Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia. 
Passengers and members of the flight crew on the fourth aircraft attempts to 
retake control of their plane from the hijackers; that plane crashes into a 
field near the town of Shanksville in rural Somerset County, Pennsylvania. 
Excluding the 19 hijackers, a confirmed 2,973 people die and another 24 remain 
listed as missing as a result of these attacks. U.S. borders with Canada and 
Mexico shut down temporarily after terrorists attack the World Trade Centre in 
New York City. Business leaders in all three countries, worried that trade had 
come to a halt, hatch a plan to create Fortress North America -- a continental 
economic and security zone.

€ December 2001: New U.S. Ambassador to Canada Paul Cellucci publicly advocates 
"NAFTA-plus". See: The Emergence of a North American Community?

€ December 12, 2001: U.S. Governor Tom Ridge and Canadian Deputy Prime Minister 
John Manley sign the Smart Border Declaration and Associated 30-Point Action 
Plan to Enhance the Security of Our Shared Border While Facilitating the 
Legitimate Flow of People and Goods. The Action Plan has four pillars: the 
secure flow of people, the secure flow of goods, secure infrastructure, and 
information. It includes shared customs data, a safe third-country agreement, 
harmonized commercial processing, etc.

€ February 7, 2002: Robert Pastor gives invited testimony before the Standing 
Committee on Foreign Affairs and International Trade, House of Commons, 
Government of Canada, Ottawa. See: INVITED TESTIMONY OF DR. ROBERT A. PASTOR

€ April 2002: The Canadian right-wing think tank the C.D. Howe Institute 
publishes the first paper in the "Border Papers" series, which they have 
described as "a project on Canada's choices regarding North American 
integration." The Border Papers were published with the financial backing of the
Donner Canadian Foundation. Generally the border papers advocate deep 
integration between Canada and the U.S., and the first border paper "Shaping the
Future of the North American Economic Space: A Framework for Action" by Wendy 
Dobson popularized the term "the Big Idea" as one euphemism for deep 
integration. To read the border papers, you can visit the C.D. Howe Institute 
website at www.cdhowe.org. Use the publication search form (1996 to current, 
PDF) and choose "border papers" from the "Serie contains" drop down menu.

€ June 28, 2002: John Manley and Tom Ridge announce progress on the Smart Border
Declaration, including ³stepped up intelligence cooperation with Canada,² 
³common standards for using biometric identifiers, such as fingerprints, facial 
recognition, and iris scanning, to confirm the identify of travelers,² and ³a 
common approach to screen international air passengers before they arrive in 
either country and identify those who warrant additional security scrutiny.²

€ September 9, 2002: President Bush and Prime Minister Chrétien meet to discuss 
progress on the Smart Border Action Plan and ask that they be updated regularly 
on the work being done to harmonize our common border.

€ December 5, 2002: The text of the Safe Third Country Agreement is signed by 
officials of Canada and the United States as part of the Smart Border Action 
Plan. See the final text here: Final Text of the Safe Third Country Agreement 
Refugee support groups on both sides of the Canadian-U.S. border criticize the 
new agreement dealing with refugees for stipulating that refugees must seek 
asylum in whichever of the two countries they reach first. Critics say that 
preventing individuals who first set foot in the U.S. from making a claim in 
Canada will increase cases of human smuggling, and that other refugees will be 
forced to live without any kind of legal status in the U.S. See for example: 10 
Reasons Why Safe Third Country is a Bad Deal

€ September 11, 2002: The National Post publishes an article by Alan Gotlieb, 
the chairman of the Donner Canadian Foundation and Canada's ambassador to the 
United States from 1981 to 1989, titled "Why not a grand bargain with the U.S.?"
In the article, Gotlieb asks "Rather than eschewing further integration with the
United States, shouldn't we be building on NAFTA to create new rules, new 
tribunals, new institutions to secure our trade? Wouldn't this 'legal 
integration' be superior to ad hoc responses and largely ineffective lobbying to
prevent harm from Congressional protectionist sorties? Wouldn't our economic 
security be enhanced by establishing a single North American competitive market 
without anti-dumping and countervail rules? Are there not elements of a grand 
bargain to be struck, combining North American economic, defence and security 
arrangements within a common perimeter?" See: Why not a grand bargain with the 

€ September 26, 2002: Canadian citizen Maher Arar is detained in New York while 
passing through John F. Kennedy Airport and held for 12 days by U.S. officials 
then deported to Syria where he is tortured and imprisoned for a year. In 2006, 
a Canadian government commission into the affair blames the unfiltered sharing 
of faulty information between Canadian and U.S. security agencies, which is 
specifically mandated in the Smart Border Declaration.

€ November 1-2, 2002: Robert Pastor presents "A North American Community. A 
Modest Proposal To the Trilateral Commission," to the North American Regional 
Meeting, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Pastor called for implementation of "a series
of political proposals which would have authority over the sovereignty of the 
United States, Canada and Mexico. ... the creation of North American passports 
and a North American Customs and Immigrations, which would have authority over 
U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) within the Department of Homeland
Security. A North American Parliamentary Group would oversee the U.S. Congress. 
A Permanent Court on Trade and Investment would resolve disputes within NAFTA, 
exerting final authority over the judgments of the U.S. Supreme Court. A North 
American Commission would 'develop an integrated continental plan for 
transportation and infrastructure.'" See: A North American Community. A Modest 
Proposal To the Trilateral Commission

€ December 6, 2002: The White House issues an update on the progress of the 
Smart Border Action Plan. See: U.S. Canada Smart Border 30 Point Action Plan 

€ December, 2002: US Secretary Colin Powell signs an agreement between the 
United States and Canada to establish a new bi-national planning group at the 
North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) headquarters in Colorado 
Springs. The new bi-national planning group is expected to release a report 
recommending how the militaries of U.S. and Canada can "work together more 
effectively to counter land-based and maritime threats." See: U.S. and Canada 
Sign Bi-National Agreement on Military Planning

€ January 2003: The Canadian Council of Chief Executives headed by Tom D'Aquino 
(also a member of the trinational Task Force on the Future of North America) 
launches the North American Security and Prosperity Initiative (NASPI) in 
January 2003 in response to an alleged "need for a comprehensive North American 
strategy integrating economic and security issues". NASPI has five main 
elements, which include: Reinventing borders, Maximizing regulatory 
efficiencies, Negotiation of a comprehensive resource security pact, 
Reinvigorating the North American defence alliance, and Creating a new 
institutional framework. See: North American Security and Prosperity Initiative 

€ April 3, 2003: The CCCE sets up an ³Action Group on North American Security 
and Prosperity,² which is comprised of 30 CEOs including former Canadian Prime 
Minister Brian Mulroney¹s former chief of staff, Derek Burney. On April 7, this 
action group meets with Tom Ridge, John Manley, then U.S. ambassador to Canada 
Paul Cellucci and prominent U.S. neocon Richard Perle in Washington, D.C. to 
discuss the Security and Prosperity Initiative.

€ October 21, 2003: Dr. Robert Pastor gives testimony to the U.S. House of 
Representatives, International Relations Committee, Subcommittee on Western 
Hemisphere Affairs on "U.S. Policy toward the Western Hemisphere:Challenges and 
Opportunities" in which he recommends the formation of a "North American 

€ January 2004: NAFTA celebrates its tenth anniversary with controversy, as it 
is both praised and criticized.

€ January/February 2004: The Council on Foreign Relations publishes Robert 
Pastor's paper "North America's Second Decade," which advocates further North 
American integration. Read it at: North America's Second Decade

€ April 16, 2004: The CCCE holds its Spring Members meeting in Washington, D.C.,
bringing close to 100 CEOs together to discuss North American integration with 
politicians including John Manley, Condoleeza Rice and Jim Peterson.

€ April 2004: The Canadian Council of Chief Executives (CCCE) publishes a major 
discussion paper titled "New Frontiers: Building a 21st Century Canada-United 
States Partnership in North America." Some of the paper¹s 15 recommendations 
expand on the NASPI framework in areas such as tariff harmonization, rules of 
origin, trade remedies, energy strategy, core defence priorities and the need to
strengthen Canada-United States institutions, including the North American 
Aerospace Defence Command (NORAD). Other recommendations focus on the process 
for developing and executing a comprehensive strategy, including the need for 
greater coordination across government departments, between federal and 
provincial governments and between the public and private sectors. See: Building
a 21st Century Canada-United States Partnership in North America

€ October 2004: The Canada-Mexico Partnership (CMP) is launched during the visit
of President Vicente Fox to Ottawa. See: Canada-Mexico Partnership (CMP)

€ November 1, 2004: The Independent Task Force on the Future of North America is
formed. The task force is a trilateral task force charged with developing a 
"roadmap" to promote North American security and advance the well-being of 
citizens of all three countries. The task force is chaired by former Liberal 
Deputy Prime Minister John Manley. It is sponsored by the Council on Foreign 
Relations (CFR) in association with the Canadian Council of Chief Executives 
(CCCE) and the Consejo Mexicano de Asuntos Internacionales.

€ December 29, 2004: The Safe Third Country Agreement comes into force. See: 
Safe Third Country Agreement Comes Into Force Today

€ March 14, 2005: The Independent Task Force on the Future of North America 
releases "Creating a North American Community - Chairmen¹s Statement." Three 
former high-ranking government officials from Canada, Mexico, and the United 
States call for a North American economic and security community by 2010 to 
address shared security threats, challenges to competitiveness, and interest in 
broad-based development across the three countries. Among its key 
recommendations are the establishment of a continental security perimeter, a 
common external tariff, a common border pass for all North Americans, a North 
American energy and natural resources strategy, and an annual meeting where 
North American leaders can discuss steps towards economic and security 
integration. See: Creating a North American Community Chairmen¹s Statement

€ March 14, 2005: Robert Pastor, author of "Toward a North American Community" 
and member of the task force on the future of North America, publishes an 
article titled "The Paramount Challenge for North America: Closing the 
Development Gap," sponsored by the North American Development Bank, which 
recommends forming a North American Community as a way to address economic 
inequalities due to NAFTA between Canada, the U.S. and Mexico. See: THE 

€ March 23, 2005: The leaders of Canada, the United States and Mexico sign the 
Security and Prosperity Partnership (SPP) of North America at the trilateral 
summit in Waco, Texas. Canada is signed on by Prime Minister Paul Martin. See: 

€ March 24, 2005: The 40 Point Smart Regulation Plan is launched as part of the 
SPP agreement. It is a far-reaching plan to introduce huge changes to Canada's 
regulatory system in order to eliminate some regulations and harmonize other 
regulations with the U.S. Reg Alcock, President of the Treasury Board and 
Minister responsible for the Canadian Wheat Board, launches the Government of 
Canada's implementation plan for Smart Regulation at a Newsmaker Breakfast at 
the National Press Club. For the original plan and updates see: Smart 
Regulation: Report on Actions and Plans

€ March 2005: Agreement to build the Texas NAFTA Superhighway: ³A ŒComprehensive
Development Agreement¹ [is] signed by the Texas Department of Transportation 
(TxDOT) to build the ŒTTC-35 High Priority Corridor¹ parallel to Interstate 35. 
The contracting party involved a limited partnership formed between Cintra 
Concesiones de Infraestructuras de Transporte, S.A., a publically listed company
headquartered in Spain, owned by the Madrid-based Groupo Ferrovial, and a San 
Antonio-based construction company, Zachry Construction Corp.² Texas Segment of 
NAFTA Super Highway Nears Construction, Jerome R. Corsi, June 2006, 
www.Humaneventsonline.com The proposed NAFTA superhighway will be a 10 lane 
super highway four football fields wide that will travel through the heart of 
the U.S. along Interstate 35, from the Mexican border at Laredo, Tex., to the 
Canadian border north of Duluth. Minn. The "Trans-Texas Corridor" or TTC will be
the first leg of the NAFTA superhighway.

€ April 2005: U.S. Senate Bill 853 is introduced by Senator Richard G. Lugar 
(IN) and six cosponsors. ³The North American Security Cooperative Act (NASCA) is
touted as a bill to protect the American public from terrorists by creating the 
North American Union. The North American Union consists of three countries, 
U.S., Canada, and Mexico, with open borders, something that is proposed to be in
effect by 2010. Thus, it would ensure the fulfillment of the Security and 
Prosperity Partnership of North America.² NASCA Rips America, April 2005, 

€ May 2005: The Council on Foreign Relations Press publishes the report of the 
Independent Task Force on the Future of North America, titled "Building a North 
American Community" (task force report 53). See: Building a North American 

  € June 2005: A follow-up SPP meeting is held in Ottawa, Canada.

€ June 2005: A U.S. Senate Republican Policy Committee policy paper is released:
³The CFR did not mention the Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA), but 
it is obvious that it is part of the scheme. This was made clear by the Senate 
Republican Policy Committee policy paper released in June 2005. It argued that 
Congress should pass CAFTA Š The Senate Republican policy paper argued that 
CAFTA Œwill promote democratic governance.¹But there is nothing democratic about
CAFTA¹s many pages of grants of vague authority to foreign tribunals on which 
foreign judges can force us to change our domestic laws to be Œno more 
burdensome than necessary¹on foreign trade.² CFR's Plan to Integrate the U.S., 
Mexico and Canada, July 2005, www.Eagleforum.org

€ June 9, 2005: CNN's Lou Dobbs, reporting on Dr. Robert Pastor's congressional 
testimony as one of the six co-chairmen of the Council on Foreign Relations 
(CFR) Independent Task Force on North America, began his evening broadcast with 
this announcement: "Good evening, everybody. Tonight, an astonishing proposal to
expand our borders to incorporate Mexico and Canada and simultaneously further 
diminish U.S. sovereignty. Have our political elites gone mad?"

€ June 27, 2005: NDP critic for International Trade and Globalization, Peter 
Julian (Burnaby-New Westminster) says "The Liberal minority government is fast 
tracking Canada into an agenda of deep integration with the US and Mexico 
without a mandate from Canadians or consultation with Parliament". See NDP 
Demands Transparency In Can/US/Mexico Talks

€ July 2005: The Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) passes in the 
U.S. House of Representatives by a 217-215 vote.

€ October 2005: The inaugural meeting of the North American Forum, which brings 
together U.S., Canadian and Mexican government and business representatives to 
discuss issues related to continental economic and social integration, is held 
at a secret location in Sonoma, California. Invitees to the event, which is 
chaired jointly by former U.S. secretary of state George Shultz, former Mexican 
finance minister Pedro Aspe, and former Alberta premier Peter Lougheed, include 
John Manley, Mexican ambassador to the U.S. Carlos de Icaza, Chevron CEO David 
O'Reilly, former head of the CIA James Woolsey, and a host of U.S. policy 
advisors to George W. Bush.

€ November 2005: Canadian Action Party leader Connie Fogal publishes an article 
called "Summary and Part 1:The Metamorphosis and Sabotage of Canada by Our Own 
Government- The North American Union." See Summary and Part 1:The Metamorphosis 
and Sabotage of Canada by Our Own Government The North American Union

€ January 2006: Conservative Stephen Harper is elected Prime Minister of Canada 
with a minority government.

€ January 10-11, 2006: Government officials and corporate leaders from Canada, 
the U.S. and Mexico meet in Louisville, Kentucky for a ³Public-Private Dialogue²
around the SPP. Discussion hits on ³marrying policy issues with business 
priorities,² expanding the SPP ³beyond those identified in the initial stages of
the process,² and building a ³genuine constituency for North American 
integration.² A North American council on competitiveness, comprised entirely of
corporate leaders, is discussed.

€ March 31, 2006: At the Summit of the Americas in Cancun, Canada (under new 
Prime Minister Stephen Harper) along with the U.S. and Mexico release the 
Leaders' Joint Statement. The statement presents six action points to move 
toward a North American Union, aka a North American Community. These action 
points include: 1) Establishment of a Trilateral Regulatory Cooperative 
Framework 2) Establishment of the North American Competitiveness Council (NACC) 
3) Provision for North American Emergency Management 4) Provision for Avian and 
Human Pandemic Influenza Management 5) Development of North American Energy 
Security 6) Assure Smart, Secure North American Borders. Read the full statement
at: Leaders' Joint Statement

€ April 2006: A draft environmental impact statement on the proposed first leg 
of the "NAFTA superhighway", the "Trans-Texas Corridor" or TTC, is completed.

€ June 2006: Tom Tancredo, R-Colorado. demands superstate accounting from the 
Bush administration: ³Responding to a Worldnetdaily.com report, Tom Tancredo is 
demanding the Bush administration fully disclose the activities of an office 
implementing a trilateral agreement with Mexico and Canada that apparently could
lead to a North American union, despite having no authorization from Congress.² 
Tancredo Confronts 'Super-State' Effort, June 2006, www.Worldnetdaily.com

€ June 15, 2006: U.S. Commerce Secretary Carlos M. Gutierrez convenes the first 
meeting of the North American Competitiveness Council (NACC), the advisory group
organized by the Department of Commerce (DOC) under the auspices of the Security
and Prosperity Partnership (SPP) and announced by the leaders of Canada, the 
U.S. and Mexico on March 31, 2006.

€ July 2006: Public hearings on the proposed "NAFTA superhighway" begin in the 

€ July 25, 2006: The article "Meet Robert Pastor, Father of the North American 
Union" is published. See: Meet Robert Pastor: Father of the North American Union

€ August 15, 2006: The NACC meets in Washington, D.C. to hash out priority 
issues for the SPP. The business leaders decide that the U.S. secretariat of the
NACC will deal with ³regulatory convergence,² the Canadian secretariat, housed 
by the CCCE, will deal with ³border facilitation,² and the Mexican secretariat 
will handle ³energy integration.² There is no media coverage of this event.

€ August 21, 2006: An article titled North American Union Threatens U.S. 
Sovereignty" is posted to informationliberation.com.

€ August 27, 2006: Patrick Wood (U.S.) publishes an article titled "Toward a 
North American Union" for The August Review. See: Toward a North American Union

€ August 28, 2006: A North American United Nations? by Republican Congressman 
Ron Paul (Texas) is published. See: A North American United Nations?

€ August 29, 2006: Patrick Buchanan (U.S.) criticizes a North American union in 
his article "The NAFTA super highway." See: The NAFTA super highway

€ September 12-14, 2006: A secret "North American Forum" on integration is held 
at the Fairmont Banff Springs Hotel. Elite participants from Canada, the U.S. 
and Mexico are present to discuss ³demographic and social dimensions of North 
American integration,² security cooperation and a ³North American energy 
strategy.² It is ignored by the mainstream media. See the Vive le Canada.ca 
article for the secret agenda and participant list: Deep Integration Planned at 
Secret Conference Ignored by the Media

€ September 13, 2006: Maclean¹s magazine finally covers the August 15 NACC 
meeting in an article by Luiza Savage titled ³Meet NAFTA 2.0.² The Maclean's 
article on integration notes that according to Ron Covais, the president of the 
Americas for defence giant Lockheed Martin, a former Pentagon adviser to Dick 
Cheney, and one of the architects of North American integration, the political 
will to make deep integration of the continent happen will last only for "less 
than two years". According to the article, to make sure that the establishment 
of a North American Union will take place in that time, "The executives have 
boiled their priorities down to three: the Canadian CEOs are focusing on 'border
crossing facilitation,' the Americans have taken on 'regulatory convergence,' 
and the Mexicans are looking at 'energy integration' in everything from 
electrical grids to the locating of liquid natural gas terminals. They plan to 
present recommendations to the ministers in October. This is how the future of 
North America now promises to be written: not in a sweeping trade agreement on 
which elections will turn, but by the accretion of hundreds of incremental 
changes implemented by executive agencies, bureaucracies and regulators. 'We've 
decided not to recommend any things that would require legislative changes,' 
says Covais. 'Because we won't get anywhere.' " See: Meet NAFTA 2.0

€ September 28, 2006: Stockwell Day says there was "nothing secret" about the 
forum on integration held in Banff. See: Nothing secret about Banff forum, says 
Stockwell Day

€ February 23, 2007: SPP Ministerial meeting is held in Ottawa, Canada, and 
attended by Canadian Ministry of Industry Maxime Bernier, Mexican Secretary of 
the Economy Eduardo Sojo, U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, Canadian 
Minister of Foreign Affairs Peter MacKay, Mexican Secretary of External Affairs 
Patricia Espinosa Castellano, U.S. Secretary of Homeland Security Michael 
Chertoff, Canadian Minister of Public Safety Stockwell Day, and Mexican 
Secretary of the Interior Francisco Javier Ramirez Acuna. Officials also consult
with corporate CEOs, members of the North American Competitiveness Council 
(NACC). The Council's 10 Canadian members were appointed last summer by Prime 
Minister Harper and given privileged access to government Ministers to push 
their corporate vision for continental "integration". In a statement, the 
ministers responsible for the SPP noted that they ³recognize the importance of 
focusing on initiatives that will further competitiveness and quality of life in
North America, and will continue to work together to successfully meet the 
security and prosperity challenges of the 21st century.² The agenda of the 
meeting is challenged by an alliance of citizen's groups in Canada, the U.S. and
Mexico. See: Tri-national ministerial meeting to star Rice and Chertoff, Trade, 
Competitiveness, and Security Issues at the Forefront of North American 
Ministerial Meeting and United States Strengthens Ties with Canada, Mexico: 
Neighbors coming together through Security and Prosperity Partnership, By David 

€ March 31-April 1, 2007: The Council of Canadians, the Canadian Labour Congress
and other progressive organizations hold a teach-in in ottawa called Integrate 
This! Challenging the Security and Prosperity Partnership. See Integrate This!

€ April 26-27, 2007: A closed-door roundtable meeting on the Future of North 
American Environment 2025 is held in Calgary on April 26 and 27 2007. This is 
the final concluding roundtable initiated by three think tanks to address issues
around where the Security and Prosperity Partnership is going. The report is to 
be sent to the three national governments, both for feedback and comments, at 
the end of June 2007. NDP MP Peter Julian crashes the meeting, and due to his 
presence there the Harper government pulls its delegation. Organisers tell 
Julian that the federal government delegation was basically stopped at the 
Airport from attending the final roundtable meetings on the subject.

€ April-May 2007: Thanks to the efforts of NDP International Trade Critic Peter 
Julian (Burnaby - New Westminster), the Standing Committee on International 
Trade holds the first ever hearings on the so-called "Security and Prosperity 
Partnership" (SPP) of North America. The televised hearings are held on April 
26, May 1st and 3rd, 2007 in Ottawa. To read the transcripts of the hearings, 
see Info on SPP Hearings from NDP MP Peter Julian and Update on Hearings at 
Trade Committee re SPP from NDP MP Peter Julian Contributed by: sthompson

€ Thursday, May 10, 2007: Amid heated charges of a coverup, Tory MPs abruptly 
shut down parliamentary hearings on the SPP, a controversial plan to further 
integrate Canada and the U.S. They shut the hearings down in reaction to the 
testimony of University of Alberta professor and director of the Parkland 
Institute Gordon Laxer, who testifies that Canadians will be left "to freeze in 
the dark" if the government forges ahead with plans to integrate energy supplies
across North America. In response, the chair of the committee, Conservative MP 
Leon Benoit (Vegreville-Wainwright), rules his testimony out of order for being 
"irrelevant" to the hearings. When opposition MPs on the committee vote down his
ruling, Benoit blurts out that he is adjourning the meeting, and proceeds to 
storm out with two other Conservative MPs. [Some of this information was 
paraphrased from the article in the Ottawa Citizen. For full article see "Tory 
chair storms out of SPP hearing", Friday May 11, the Ottawa Citizen, Tory chair 
storms out of SPP hearing.] Later, Gordon Laxer's presentation to the trade 
committee on SPP is officially voted in as evidence by the committee. The full 
testimony is printed in both the Calgary Herald and the Edmonton Journal on May 
16, 2007. You can read it on Vive at: Latest News from Parkland Institute: Laxer
Creates Stir on the Hill; or see the Edmonton Journal article, Canada-first 
energy strategy needed.

€ July 5, 2007: Prison Planet reports that the merger of Canada, the U.S. and 
Mexico into a North American Union will be formally presented to U.S. Congress 
at the end of summer, after more meetings on the subject. See: Globalists To 
Formally Propose Merger Of U.S., Canada, Mexico

€ July 9, 2007: NDP MP Peter Julian starts gathering signatures on a petition to
stop the SPP. Signees "call upon the Government of Canada to stop further 
implementation of the Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America (SPP)
with the United States and Mexico until there is a democratic mandate from the 
people of Canada, Parliamentary oversight, and consideration of its profound 
consequences on Canada¹s existence as a sovereign nation and its ability to 
adopt autonomous and sustainable economic, social, and environmental policies, 
and urge the Government of Canada to conduct a transparent and accountable 
public debate of the SPP process, involving meaningful public consultations with
civil society and a full legislative review, including the work, 
recommendations, and reports of all SPP working groups, and a full debate and a 
vote in Parliament." See Sign the Petition to Stop the SPP and Deep Integration

€ UPCOMING August 20-21, 2007: Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper, George W.
Bush, and Mexican President Felipe Calderon will meet for the planned third 
summit of the Security and Prosperity Partnership. August 20-21,Montebello, QC. 
Protests are being planned. We'll update details on this as we get them.

Sources aside from articles provided within the timeline:
Vive le Canada.ca, FAQ, Sovereignty vs Deep Integration
North American Forum on Integration, NAFTA Timeline

North American Union/Testimony, Publications and Reports, Sourcewatch, a project
of the Center for Media and Democracy, North American Union/Testimony, 
Publications and Reports

Free Market News Network Corp, N. AM. UNION TIMELINE
SPP Timeline, SPP: What You Don't Know CAN Hurt You!
Wikipedia, various entries, Wikipedia.org

Also, wherever possible links to the full text of various agreements have been 

We also recommend the Council of Canadians' deep integration timeline: DI 
timeline (PDF)

Posting archives: http://cyberjournal.org/show_archives/?lists=newslog
Escaping the Matrix website: http://escapingthematrix.org/
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