Jules Dufour: Worldwide Network of US Military Bases


Richard Moore

Original source URL:

The Worldwide Network of US Military Bases
The Global Deployment of US Military Personnel

By Prof. Jules Dufour

Global Research, July 1, 2007

The Worldwide control of humanity's economic, social and political activities is
under the helm of US corporate and military power. Underlying this process are 
various schemes of direct and indirect military intervention. These US sponsored
strategies ultmately consist in a process of global subordination.

Where is the Threat?

The 2000 Global Report published in 1980 had outlined "the State of the World" 
by focussing on so-called  "level of threats" which might negatively influence 
or undermine US interests.

Twenty years later, US strategists, in an attempt to justify their military 
interventions in different parts of the World, have conceptualised the greatest 
fraud in US history, namely "the Global War on Terrorism" (GWOT). The latter, 
using a fabricated pretext  constitutes a global war against all those who 
oppose US hegemony. A modern form of slavery, instrumented through 
militarization and the "free market" has unfolded.

Major elements of the conquest and world domination strategy by the US refer to:

1) the control of the world economy and its financial markets,

2) the taking over of all natural resources (primary resources and nonrenewable 
sources of energy). The latter constitute the cornerstone of US power through 
the activities of its multinational corporations.

Geopolitical Outreach: Network of Military Bases

The US has established its control over 191 governments which are members of the
United Nations. The conquest, occupation and/or otherwise supervision of these 
various regions of the World is supported by an integrated network of military 
bases and installations which covers the entire Planet (Continents, Oceans and 
Outer Space). All this pertains to the workings of  an extensive Empire, the 
exact dimensions of which are not always easy to ascertain.

Known and documented from information in the public domaine including Annual 
Reports of the US Congress, we have a fairly good understanding of the 
strucuture of US military expenditure, the network of US military bases and  the
shape of this US military-strategic configuration in different regions of the 

The objective of this article is to build a summary profile of the World network
of military bases, which are under the jurisdiction and/or control  of the US. 
The spatial distribution of these military bases will be examined together with 
an analysis of the multibillion dollar annual cost of their activities.

In a second section of this article, Worldwide popular resistance movements 
directed against US military bases and their various projects will be outlined. 
In a further article we plan to analyze the military networks of other major 
nuclear superpowers including  the United Kingdom, France and Russia.

I. The Military Bases

Military bases are conceived for training purposes, preparation and stockage of 
military equipment, used by national armies throughout the World. They are not 
very well known in view of the fact that they are not open to the public at 
large. Even though they take on different shapes, according to the military 
function for which they were established; they can broadly be classified under 
four main categories :

a) Air Force Bases (see photos 1 and 2);

b) Army or Land Bases;

c) Navy Bases and

d) Communication and Spy Bases.

Photo 1. Air Base of Diego Garcia located in the Indian Ocean

Reference : http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Diego_Garcia_%28satellite%29.jpg

Photo 2. Diego Garcia. An Aerial View of two B-52 and six Kc-a135

Reference : 

II. More than 1000 US Bases and/or Military Installations

The main sources of information on these military installations (e.g. C. 
Johnson, the NATO Watch Committee, the International Network for the Abolition 
of Foreign Military Bases) reveal that the US operates and/or controls between 
700 and 800 military bases Worldwide.

In this regard, Hugh d¹Andrade and Bob Wing's 2002 Map 1 entitled "U.S. Military
Troops and Bases around the World, The Cost of 'Permanent War'", confirms the 
presence of US military personnel in 156 countries.

The US Military has bases in 63 countries. Brand new military bases have been 
built since September 11, 2001 in seven countries.

In total, there are 255,065 US military personnel deployed Worldwide.

These facilities include a total of 845,441 different buildings and equipments. 
The underlying land surface is of the order of 30 million acres. According to 
Gelman, who examined 2005 official Pentagon data, the US is thought to own a 
total of 737 bases in foreign lands. Adding to the bases inside U.S. territory, 
the total land area occupied by US military bases domestically within the US and
internationally is of the order of 2,202,735 hectares, which makes the Pentagon 
one of the largest landowners worldwide (Gelman, J., 2007).

Map 1. U.S. Military Troops and Bases around the World. The Cost of «Permanent 
War» and Some Comparative Data

Source: http://www.unitedforpeace.org/article.php?id=884

Map 2. The American Military Bases Around the World (2001-2003)

Source : http://www.globalpolicy.org/empire/intervention/index.htm

Source : http://www.nobases.org

Map 3 US Military Bases Click here to see Map 3

The Map of the World Network "No Bases" (Map 3) reveals the following:

Based on a selective examination of military bases in North America, Latin 
America, Western Europe, the Middle East, Central Asia, Indonesia, the 
Philippines and Japan, several of these military bases are being used for 
intelligence purposes. New selected sites are Spy Bases and Satellite-related 
Spy Bases.

The Surface of the Earth is Structured as a Wide Battlefield

These military bases and installations of various kinds are distributed 
according to a Command structure divided up into five spatial units and four 
unified Combatant Commands (Map 4). Each unit is under the Command of a General.

The Earth surface  is being conceived as a wide battlefield which can be 
patrolled or steadfastly supervised from the Bases.

Map 4. The World and Territories Under the Responsibility of a Combatant Command
or Under a Command Structure

Source : http://www.defenselink.mil/specials/unifiedcommand/

Territories under a Command are: the Northern Command (NORTHCOM) (Peterson Air 
Force Base, Colorado), the Pacific Command (Honolulu, Hawaii), the Southern 
Command (Miami, Florida ­ Map 5), The Central Command (CENTCOM) (MacDill Air 
Force Base, Florida), the European Command (Stuttgart-Vaihingen, Germany), the 
Joint Forces Command (Norfolk, Virginia), the Special Operations Command 
(MacDill Air Force Base, Florida), the Transportation Command (Scott Air Force 
Base, Illinois) and the Strategic Command (STRATCOM) (Offutt Air Force Base, 

Map 5. The Southern Command

Source : http://www.visionesalternativas.com/militarizacion/mapas/mapabases.htm

NATO Military Bases

The Atlantic Alliance (NATO) has its own Network of military bases, thirty in 
total. The latter are primarily located in Western Europe:

Whiteman, U.S.A., Fairford,
Lakenheath and Mildenhall in United Kingdom,
Eindhoven in Netherlands,

Brüggen, Geilenkirchen, Landsberg, Ramstein, Spangdahlem, Rhein-Main in Germany,

Istres and Avord in France.
Morón de la Frontera and Rota in Spain,

Brescia, Vicenza, Piacenza, Aviano, Istrana, Trapani, Ancora, Pratica di Mare, 
Amendola, Sigonella, Gioia dell Colle, Grazzanise and Brindisi in Italy,

Tirana in Albania,
Incirlik in Turkey,
Eskan Village in Soudi Arabia and

Ali al Salem in Koweit 
(http://www.terra.es/actualidad/articulo/html/act52501.htm )

III. The Global Deployment of US Military Personnel

There are 6000  military bases and/ or military warehouses located in the U.S. 
(See Wikipedia, February 2007).

Total Military Personnel is of the order of  1,4 million of which 1,168,195 are 
in the U.S and US overseas territories.

Taking figures from the same source, there are 325,000 US military personnel in 
foreign countries:

800 in Africa,
97,000 in Asia (excluding the Middle East and Central Asia),
40,258 in South Korea,
40,045 in Japan,
491 at the Diego Garcia Base in the Indian Ocean,
100 in the Philippines, 196 in Singapore,
113 in Thailand,
200 in Australia,
and 16,601 Afloat.

In Europe, there are 116,000 US military personnel including 75,603 who are 
stationed in Germany.

In Central Asia about 1,000 are stationed at the Ganci (Manas) Air Base in 
Kyrgyzstan and 38 are located at Kritsanisi, in Georgia, with a mission to train
Georgian soldiers.

In the Middle East (excludng the Iraq war theater) there are 6,000 US military 
personnel, 3,432 of whom are in Qatar and 1,496 in Bahrain.

In the Western Hemisphere, excluding the U.S. and US territories, there are 700 
military personnel in Guantanamo, 413 in Honduras and 147 in Canada.

Map 3 provides information regarding military personnel on duty, based on a 
regional categorization (broad regions of the world). The total number of 
military personnel at home in the U.S. and/or in US Territories is 1,139,034. 
There are 1,825 in Europe 114, 660, 682 in Subsaharian Africa, 4, 274 in the 
Middle East and Southern Asia, 143 in the Ex-USSR, and 89,846 in the Pacific.

IV. The Operational Cost of the Worldwide Military Network

US defense spending (excluding the costs of the Iraq war) have increased from 
404 in 2001 to 626 billion dollars in 2007 according to data from the Washington
based Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation. US defense spending is 
expected to reach 640 billion dollars in 2008.

(Figure 1 and http://www.armscontrolcenter.org/archives/002244.php ).

These 2006 expenses correspond to 3.7% of the US GDP and $935.64 per capita   

Figure 1. U.S. Military Expenditures since 1998

Source : http://www.globalissues.org/Geopolitics/ArmsTrade/Spending.asp

According to Fig 1, the 396 billion dollars military budget proposed in 2003 has
in fact reached 417.4 billion dollars, a 73% increase compared to 2000 (289 
billion dollars). This outlay for 2003 was more than half of the total of the US
discretionary budget.

Since 2003, these military expenditures have to be added to those of the Iraq 
war and occupation The latter reached in March 2007, according to the National 
Priorities Project, a cumulative total of 413 billion dollars.


(http://nationalpriorities.org/index.php?option=com_wrapper&Itemid=182 ).

Estimates of the Defense Department budget needs, made public in 2006 in the DoD
Green Book for FY 2007 are of the order of  440 billion dollars.

(http://www.dod.mil/comptroller/defbudget/fy2007/index.html )

Military and other staff required numbered 1,332,300. But those figures do not 
include the money required for the "Global World on Terrorism" (GWOT). In other 
words, these figures largely pertain to the regular Defense budget.

A Goldstein of the Washington Post, within the framework of an article on the 
aspects of the National 2007 budget titled «2007 Budget Favors Defense», wrote 
about this topic:

"Overall, the budget for the 2007 fiscal year would further reshape the 
government in the way the administration has been striving to during the past 
half-decade: building up military capacity and defenses against terrorist 
threats on U.S. soil, while restraining expenditures for many domestic areas, 
from education programs to train service"


V. US Military Bases to Protect Strategic Energy Resources

In the wake of 9/11, Washington initiated its "Global War on Terrorism" (GWOT), 
first in Afghanistan and then in Iraq. Other countries, which were not 
faithfully obeying Washington's directives including Iran, North Korea, Syria 
and Venezuela have been earmarked for possible US military intervention.

Washington keeps a close eye on countries opposed to US corporate control over 
their resources. Washington also targets countries where there are popular 
resistance movements directed against US interests, particularly in South 
America. In this context, President Bush made a quick tour to Brazil, Uruguay, 
Colombia, Guatemala and Mexico «to promote democracy and trade» but also with a 
view to ultimately curbing and restraining popular dissent to the US interests 
in the region. .


The same braod approach is being applied in Central Asia. According to Iraklis 
Tsavdaridis, Secretary of the World Peace Council (WPC):

"The establishment of U.S. military bases should not of course be seen simply in
terms of direct military ends. They are always used to promote the economic and 
political objectives of U.S. capitalism. For example, U.S. corporations and the 
U.S. government have been eager for some time to build a secure corridor for 
US.-controlled oil and natural gas pipelines from the Caspian Sea in Central 
Asia through Afghanistan and Pakistan to the Arabian Sea. This region -has more 
than 6 percent of the world's proven oil reserves and almost 40 percent of its 
gas reserves. The war in Afghanistan and the creation of U.S. military Bases in 
Central Asia are viewed as a key opportunity to make such pipelines a reality."

(http://stopusa.be/campaigns/texte.php?section=FABN&langue=3&id=24157 ).

The US. are at War in Afghanistan and Iraq. They pursue these military 
operations until they reach their objective which they call "VICTORY". According
to Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deployment_of-the_U.S.-Military), 
American troops fighting in these countries number 190,000.  The "Enduring 
Freedom" Operation in Iraq alone has almost 200,000 military personnel, 
including 26,000 from other countries participating to the US sponsored 
"Mission". About 20,000 more could join other contingents in the next few 
months. In Afghanistan, a total of 25,000 soldiers participate to the operation 
(Map 6 and Map 7).

Map  6.  Petroleum and International Theatre of War in the Middle East and 
Central Asia

Source : Eric Waddell, The Battle for Oil, Global Research, 2003

Map 7. American Bases Located in Central Asia

Source : http://www.heartland.it/map_centro_asia_ring.html

Map 8. Oil Fields in Latin America

Source : http://www.visionesalternativas.com/militarizacion/mapas/mapahegem.htm

VI. Military Bases Used for the Control of Strategic Renewable Resources

US Military Bases in foreign countries, are mainly located in Western Europe: 26
of them are in Germany, 8, in Great Britain, and 8 in Italy. There are nine 
military installations in Japan (Wikepedia).

In the last few years, in the context of the GWOT, the US haa built 14 new bases
in and around the Persian Gulf.

It is also involved in construction and/or or reinforcement of 20 bases (106 
structured units as a whole) in Iraq, with costs  of the order of 1.1 billion 
dollars in that country alone (Varea, 2007) and the use of about ten bases in 
Central Asia.

The US has also undertaken continued negotiations with several countries to 
install, buy, enlarge or rent an addional number of military bases. The latter 
pertain inter alia to installations in Morocco, Algeria, Mali, Ghana, Brazil and
Australia (See Nicholson, B., 2007), Poland, Czech Republic (Traynor, I., 2007),
Ouzbekistan, Tadjikistan, Kirghizstan, Italy (Jucca, L., 2007) and France.

Washington has signed an agreement to build a military base in Djibouti 
(Manfredi, E., 2007). All these initiatives are a part of an overall plan to 
install a series of military bases geographically located in a West-East 
corridor extending from Colombia in South America, to North Africa, the Near 
East, Central Asia and as far as the Philippines (Johnson, C., 2004). The US 
bases in South American are related to the control and access to the extensive 
natural biological , mineral and water resources resources of the Amazon Basin. 
(Delgado Jara, D., 2006 and Maps 9 and 10).

Map 9. The Biological Wealth of Latin America

Source : http://www.visionesalternativas.com/militarizacion/mapas/mapahegem.htm

Map 10. Freshwater Resources in Latin America

Source : http://www.visionesalternativas.com/militarizacion/mapas/mapahegem.htm

VII. Resistance Movements

The network of US military bases is strategic, located in prcximity of 
traditional strategic resources including nonrenewable sources of energy. This 
military presence has brought about political opposition and resistance from 
progressive movements and antiwar activists.

Demonstrations directed against US military presence has developed in Spain, 
Ecuador, Italy, Paraguay, Uzbekistan, Bulgaria and in many other countries. 
Moreover, other long-termer resistance movements directed against US military 
presence have continued in South Korea, Puerto Rico, Guam, the Philippines, 
Cuba, Europe, Japan and other locations.

The Worldwide resistance to US foreign military bases has grown during the last 
few years. We are dealing with an International Network for the Abolition of US 
Military Bases.

Such networks' objective is to broadly pursue disarmament, demilitarization 
processes Worldwide as well as dismantle US military bases in foreign countries.

The NO BASES Network organizes educational campaigns to sensitize public 
opinion.  It also works to rehabilitate abandoned military sites, as in the case
of Western Europe.

These campaigns, until 2004, had a local and national impact.

The network is now in a position to reach people Worldwide. The network itself 
underscores that "much can be gained from greater and deeper linkages among 
local and national campaigns and movements across the globe. Local groups around
the world can learn and benefit from sharing information, experiences, and 
strategies with each other"

(http://www.no-bases.org/index.php?mod=network&bloque=1&idioma=en )

"The realisation that one is not alone in the struggle against foreign bases is 
profoundly empowering and motivating. Globally coordinated actions and campaigns
can highlight the reach and scale of the resistance to foreign military presence
around the world. With the trend of rising miniaturization and resort to the use
of force around the world, there is now an urgent and compelling need to 
establish and strengthen an international network of campaigners, organisations,
and movements working with a special and strategic focus on foreign military 
presence and ultimately, working towards a lasting and just system of peace»

(http://www.no-bases.org/index.php?mod=network&bloque=1&idioma=en )

The Afghanistan and Iraq wars have, in this regard, created a favourable 
momentum, which has contributed to the reinforcement of the movement to close 
down US military bases in foreign countries:

"At the time of an International anti-war meeting held in Jakarta in May 2003, a
few weeks after the start of the Iraq invasion, a global anti-military Bases 
campaign has been proposed as an action to priorize among global anti-war, 
justice and solidarity movements»  

Since then, the campaign has acquired greater recognition. E-mail lists have 
been compiled (•••@••.•••  and •••@••.••• )
that permit the diffusion of the movement members experiences and information 
and discussion exchanges. That list now groups 300 people and organizations from
48 countries. A Web site permits also to adequately inform all Network members. 
Many rubrics provide highly valuable information on ongoing activities around 
the World.


In addition, the Network is more and more active and participates in different 
activities. At the World Social Forums it organized various conferences and 
colloquia. It was present at the European Social Forum held in Paris in 2003 and
in London in 2004 as well as at the the America¹s Social Forum in Ecuador in 
2004, and at the Mediterranean Social Forum in Spain in 2005.

One of the major gatherings, which was held in Mumbai, India, in 2004, was 
within the framework of the World Social Forum. More than 125 participants from 
34 countries defined the foundations of a coordinated global campaign.

Action priorities were identified, such as the determination of a global day of 
action aiming at underscoring major issues stemming from the existence of US 
military bases. The Network also held four discussion sessions at the Porto 
Alegre Social Forum in 2005. One of those pertained to the financing of the 
Network's activities.

It is important to recall that the Network belongs to the Global Peace Movement.
Justice and Peace organizations have  become more sensitized on what was at 
stake regarding US military bases.


 Map 11. Social and Resistence Movements in Latin America

Source : http://www.visionesalternativas.com/militarizacion/mapas/mapahegem.htm

The Quito and Manta International Conference, Ecuador, March 2007

A Network World Conference for the Abolition of Foreign Military Bases was held 
at Quito and at Manta, Ecuador, from March 5 to 9 2007


The objective of the Conference was to underscore the political, social, 
environmental and economic impacts of US military bases, to make known the 
principles of the various Anti-Bases movements and to formally build the 
Network, its strategies, structure and Action Plans. The main objectives of the 
Conference were the following:

-           Analyze the role of Foreign Military Bases and other features of 
military presence associated to the global dominance strategy and their impacts 
upon population and environment;

-           Share experiences and reinforce the built solidarity resulting from 
the resistance battles against Foreign military Bases around the World;

-           Reach a consensus on objectives mechanisms, on action plans, on 
coordination, on communication and on decision making of a Global Network for 
the abolition of all Foreign military Bases and of all other expressions of 
military presence; and

-            Establish global action plans to fight and reinforce the resistance
of local people and ensure that these actions are being coordinated at the 
international level.


This article has focussed on the Worldwide development of US military power.

The US tends to view the Earth surface as a vast territory to conquer, occupy 
and exploit. The fact that the US Military splits the World up into geographic 
command units vividly illustrates this underlying geopolitical reality.

Humanity is being controlled  and enslaved by this Network of US military bases.

The ongoing re-deployment of US troops and military bases has to be analyzed in 
a thorough manner if we wish to understand the nature of US interventionism  in 
different regions of the World.

This militarisation process is charactersied by armed aggression and warfare, as
well as interventions called "cooperation agreements". The latter reaffirmed 
America's economic design design in the areas of trade and investment practices.
Economic development is ensured through the miniaturization or the control of 
governments and organizations. Vast resources are thereby expended and wasted in
order to allow such control to be effective, particuarly  in regions which have 
a strategic potential in terms of wealth and resources and which are being used 
to consolidate the Empire's structures and functions.

The setting up of the International Network for the Abolition of Foreign 
Military Bases turns out to be an extraordinary means to oppose the 
miniaturization process of the Planet. Such Network is indispensable and its 
growth depends on a commitment of all the People of the World. It will be 
extremely difficult to mobilize them, but the ties built up by the Network among
its constituant resistence movements are a positive element, which is ultmately 
conducive to more cohesive and coordinated battle at the World level.

The Final Declaration of the Second International Conference against Foreign 
Military Bases which was held in Havana in November 2005 and was endorsed by 
delegates from 22 countries identifies most of the major issues, which confront 
mankind. This Declaration constitutes a major peace initative. It establishes  
international solidarity in the process of  disarmament. .

 (http://www.csotan.org/textes/texte.php?type=divers&art_id=267 ).


COMITÉ DE SURVEILLANCE OTAN. 2005. Las bases militares : un aspecto de la 
estrategia global de la OTAN. Intervencion del Comité Surveillance Otan en la 
Conferencia Internacional realizada en La Habana 7-11.11.2005. 9 pages.

DELGADO JARA, Diego. 2006. Bases de Manta, Plan Colombia y dominio de la 
Amazonia. Militarizacion de la Hegemonia de EE. UU. En América latina. 17 pages.

EQUIPO DE COMUNICACIÓN CONFERENCIA NO BASES. 2007. La gente del mundo no quiere 
bases militares extranjeras.

GELMAN, J. 2007. Terratenientes. Rebelion. 26 de Febrero de 2007,  

Ghana to host US Military Base? February 26, 2006.

JOHNSON, C.,  America's Empire of Bases. January 2004.

JOHNSON, C.  America¹s Empire of Bases. Janvier 2004 .

JOHNSON, C. 2005. The Sorrows of Empire. Militarism, Secrecy, and the End of the
Republic. Henry Holt, April 2005, Paperback. 389 pages.

JOHNSON, C., 2007.. 737 U.S. Military Bases = Global Empire.  February 19, 2007

JUCCA, L., 2007. Italians protest over U.S. base expansion. Sat Feb 17, 2007.

MANFREDI, E. 2007. Djibouti : Hôtel Corne d¹Afrique, grande base américaine. Le 
GRAND SOIR.info. Édition du 23 mars 2007.

NEW INTERNATIONALIST. 2004. The Bases of Resistance, December 2004, Issue 374.

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TRAYNOR, I. 2007. US EXPANDS, Builds New Military Bases in Europe.  The 
Guardian, anuary 22, 2007.

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of the USA and NATO. Novembre 2005. Stop USA / STOP United States of Agression.

VAREA, C., Las bases Militares de EEUU en Iraq. 4 mai 2006. Nodo50.

Web Sites

An Internet Guide to United States Military Bases Around the World :

APPEL A UN RASSEMBLEMENT INTERNATIONAL en Mars 2007, Équateur, Pour  l¹abolition
de toutes les bases militaires

Bases y Ejercicios Militares de EE.UU. El Comando Sur.


Campana. Un mundo sin bases militares . Asemblea de Organizaciones y Movimientos
contra la guerra, la OTAN y el Neoliberalismo (Madrid), Nodo50.

Challenges to the US Empire, 

Washington veut installer une base militaire en Algérie. Le Quotidien d'Oran, 20
juillet 2003.

Empire? http://www.globalpolicy.org/empire/index.htm

International Conference against Foreign Military Bases. Final Declaration.

[Fsmed-general] for all that are against foreign military bases:




Abdulhafeth Khrisat, Impérialisme américain et politique militaire, ,  
Université Mu¹tah

Interview with Chalmers Johnson, Part 1. An Empire of More Than 725 Military 

Liste des bases militaires américaines dans le monde.

Major Military Bases World-Wide,

Military Bases Around The World, http://www.fsmitha.com/com/bases.htm

Military Bases around the world and in Europe - the role of the USA and NATO , 
Iraklis Tsavdaridis, Secretary of the World Peace Council (WPC) 8th November 
2005, From the Greek Committee for International Detente and Peace (EEDYE), 
Presented on November 8, 2005 at the International Conference on Foreign 
Military Bases in Havana/Cuba organized by MOVPAZ :


Military of the United States : 


No a la instalacion de una base de la OTAN en Zaragoza :

OTAN ­ Le grand jeu des bases militaires en terre européenne :


Protestas contra bases militares de EEUU en Espana :



US Military Troops and Bases Around the World :


U.S. Military Troops and Bases Around the World /united for peace & justice:


US Military Expansion and Intervention :



Jules Dufour is President of the United Nations Association of Canada (UNA-C) ­ 
Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean branch and Research Associate at the Center for Research
on Globalization (CRG).  He is Emeritus Professor of Geography at the University
of  Quebec, Chicoutimi.

In 2007, Professor Jules Dufour became Chevalier de l'Ordre national du Québec, 
a distinction conferred by the Quebec government, for his contributions to World
peace and human rights,  his numerous scholarly writings and the work he 
accomplished in the context of national and international commissions on issues 
pertaining to regional development, human rights and the protection of the 

Translated from the French, first published on Global Research's French language
website: http://www.mondialisation.ca

Article in French, 10 avril 2007.

Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are the sole responsibility of 
the author and do not necessarily reflect those of the Centre for Research on 

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