John Wilmerding: A Bush-Nazi Timeline


Richard Moore

From: "Brian Hill" <•••@••.•••>
To: "Richard K. Moore" <•••@••.•••>
Subject: Fw: [toeslist] A Bush-Nazi Timeline
Date: Wed, 20 Oct 2004 22:51:46 -0700

----- Original Message ----- 
From: "John Wilmerding" <•••@••.•••>
To: <•••@••.•••>
Sent: Wednesday, October 20, 2004 9:50 PM
Subject: [toeslist] A Bush-Nazi Timeline

----- Downloaded ----- 
A Bush-Nazi Timeline
"History tells us what's possible." -- False president George
Walker Bush, speaking in Oswiecim, Poland at the site of the
former Auschwitz concentration camp in June 2003.
The American press has gone out of its way to overlook the
historic fact that through Union Banking Corporation (UBC),
Prescott Bush, and his father-in-law, George Herbert Walker,
along with German industrialist Fritz Thyssen, financed Adolf
Hitler before and during World War II.  This was first
reported in 1994 by John Loftus and Mark Aarons in 'The Secret
War Against the Jews: How Western Espionage Betrayed the
Jewish People'.
The US government knew early on that many large American
companies, such as Standard Oil, General Motors and Chase
Bank, were aiding and doing business hand-over-fist with the
Nazis -- commerce and support which was legally proscribed
after Pearl Harbor under the Trading With The Enemy Act.  But
as New York Times reporter Charles Higham later discovered and
published in his 1983 groundbreaking book, 'Trading With The
Enemy; The Nazi American Money Plot 1933-1949', "the
government smothered everything -- during, and even after, the
war."  Why?
According to Higham, the US government believed "a public
scandal ... would have drastically affected public morale,
caused widespread strikes and perhaps provoked mutinies in the
armed services."  Higham claims the government thought "their
trial and imprisonment would have made it impossible for the
corporate boards to help the American war effort."
However, Prescott Bush's banks were not just financing Hitler
as previously reported.  In fact, there was a distinct
business link much deeper than Higham or Loftus knew at the
time their books were published.
Loftus now says that a classified Dutch intelligence file
leaked by a courageous Dutch intelligence officer, along with
newly surfaced information from U.S. government archives,
"confirms absolutely" the direct links between Bush, Thyssen
and genocide profits from Auschwitz.  This information reveals
how Prescott Bush and UBC, which he managed directly, profited
from the Holocaust.
A case can thus be made that survivors of the Holocaust and
its slave labor communities.could demand reparations from the
inheritors of the Prescott Bush estate, including former
president George Herbert Walker Bush and his son, the current
false-president George Walker Bush.
The facts presented here must be known, and their implications
reflected upon, for a proper understanding of the Bush family
and their pattern and path to riches.  Both Presidents' family
fortune, and eventually their very political careers, were
substantially a result of the Hitler-Thyssen-Nazi financing
project.  The powerful Anglo-American family associations
which later boosted George Herbert Walker Bush into the
Central Intelligence Agency and up to the White House also
numbered among his father Prescott's partners in the Hitler
In 1942, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's Alien Property
Custodian, Leo T. Crowley, signed Vesting Order Number 248
seizing the property of Prescott Bush under the Trading with
the Enemy Act.  The order, published in obscure government
record books and kept out of the news, explained nothing about
the Nazis involved -- only that the Union Banking Corporation
was run for the "Thyssen family" of "Germany and/or Hungary"
-- "nationals ... of a designated enemy country."
But the important fact that Roosevelt himself had previously
acted as a stakeholder and promoter of the rise of the Nazi's
has completely escaped history's attention.
By deciding that Prescott Bush and the other directors of the
Union Banking Corp. were legally front men for the Nazis, the
Roosevelt government and its successors avoided the more
important historical issue:  In what way were Hitler's Nazis
themselves hired, armed and instructed by the New York and
London clique of which Prescott Bush was an executive manager?
It is an issue that would have damned Roosevelt himself, and
the entire elitist clique of families which continue to
control the fortunes of the USA and "Great Britain and
Northern Ireland" today.
Compilation of this Bush-Nazi timeline is an ongoing justice
project of CERJ, in the interest of public education, and in
hopes that this bizarre and nightmarish history will be
prevented from repeating itself over and over again.
-- John Wilmerding
P.S.:  After this timeline was compiled (and I don't claim it
is completely accurate, as it comes from secondary sources),
John Loftus (who is now a commentator on intelligence matters
for Fox news, I hear) told me that the funds invested in Nazi
Germany by the Union Banking Corporation were largely from the
Rockefeller family, presumably John D. Rockefeller's estate,
as he was elderly at the time and had not yet passed his
wealth on to the next generation.  These funds, also
presumably, were brokered into high risk / high yield
investments by the Harriman brothers and their special-purpose
CEO for this project, Prescott Bush.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _
1833:  The secretive Skull and Bones Society is formed at Yale
University.  [Both John Kerry and George Walker Bush are
members. -- JW]
April 20, 1889:  Adolf Hitler is born in Braunau, Austria.
1897:  The Union Pacific Railroad (UPR) goes bankrupt.
1898:  The Union Pacific Railroad is sold to Edward Henry
Harriman & his partner, Judge Robert Scott Lovett, in a deal
managed by the Kuhn Loeb brokerage where Felix Warburg is a
September, 1900 -- Hitler begins high school in Linz Austria. 
A poor student, Hitler wants to become an artist and attend
classical school, but his father, who more realistically hopes
his son will become a government worker, sends him to a
technical high school.
1902:  Paul and Felix Warburg immigrate to the United States.
1904:  German Alfred Ploetz founds the Archive for Racial and
Social Biology, which becomes the chief journal of the German
eugenics or 'race hygiene' movement.  Ernst Haeckel
popularizes eugenics in Germany.
John D. Rockefeller issues "Occasional Letter No.1" detailing
plans to mold the people, reduce national intelligence to the
lowest common denominator, destroy parental influence,
traditions and customs, and eliminate science and real
learning, "in order to perfect human nature".
An advanced eugenics laboratory is constructed by Charles B.
Davenport at Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island, NY, also near
the estates of both Dulles brothers.  The facility is funded
in excess of $11 million by the Harrimans and the
1907:  Samuel Bush is elected President of Buckeye Steel
Castings Co. in Columbus, Ohio.  For his entire career, Samuel
Bush supplies Wall Street railroads with castings.  He later
becomes a close advisor to President Hoover, and first
president of the National Manufacturers Association. (NAM). 
NAM, in its turn, establishes a history of supporting
union-busting and fascism.  In the 1950s, Robert Welch and
other members of NAM form the John Birch Society.
After failing the entrance exam to Vienna's Academy of Fine
Arts, Hitler takes a variety of jobs and often sleeps on park
benches.  A German-speaking Austrian, Hitler develops a hatred
for non-Germans, and a belief that government cannot succeed
if it treats all racial groups equally.
Indiana passes the first eugenics law.
1909:  The Rockefeller Foundation is established.  The
Rockefellers support the strong eugenics movement of this
time, including the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in Germany.
1911:  John Foster Dulles joins Sullivan and Cromwell.
1913:  The Federal Reserve, a private banking cartel, is
created.  Paul Warburg serves as a governor of the Reserve
during WW I during the same period that his brother Max was
head of the German Secret Service.  Ninety years later, in
2003, the Reserve remains in private hands, despite popular
misapprehensions that it is part of the US government.
1914:  With war close at hand, Percy Rockefeller takes control
of Remington Arms & appoints Samuel F. Pryor as CEO.
When World War I begins, Hitler serves in the German army,
where he eventually rises to the rank of corporal.
1915:  Dulles' uncle Robert Lansing is appointed Secretary of
State.  Lansing recruits his nephew to go to Nicaragua, Costa
Rica and Panama on the pretext of company business, but in
reality to sound out the Latin Americans on aiding the US war
effort.  Costa Rica, at the time, is led by vicious dictator
Federico Tinoco.  Dulles advises Washington to support the
dictator on grounds that he was anti-German.  Dulles also
encourages Nicaragua dictator Emianiano Camorro to issue a
proclamation suspending diplomatic relations with Germany.  In
Panama, Dulles offers to let Panama waive the US tax on its
annual canal fee, so long as Panama declares war on Germany.
1916:  The "Great War" is spinning out of control, grinding
away at Germany's resources and economy.  At age 74, German
industrial magnate August Thyssen sees his company, Thyssen &
Company, buckling under the war's pressure.  With 50,000
German employees workers and an annual production of 1,000,000
tons of steel and iron -- the main supplier of the German
military -- Thyssen realizes Germany will be defeated once the
US enters the war.
Thyssen looked to his first born son.  Educated at the finest
technical business schools in Europe, Friedrich ('Fritz')
Thyssen, was destined to inherit his father's estimated
$100,000,000 fortune and the family's industrial empire,
headquartered at Muehhlheim in the Ruhrgebiet, Germany's main
industrial area.
August had previously laid out precautionary plans for his
second son Heinrich.  At the outbreak of the war, Heinrich
Thyssen discreetly changed his citizenship from German to
Hungarian, marrying Hungarian aristocrat Baroness Margrit
Bornemisza de Kaszon.  Soon, Heinrich changed his name to
Baron Thyssen Bornemisza de Kaszon.
Near the end of World War I, August Thyssen opens the Bank
voor Handel en Scheepvaart in Rotterdam.  Neutral Holland was
the perfect location to launder assets from the August Thyssen
Bank in Berlin when the financial demands of the Allied forces
surfaced.  But the war ended sooner than Thyssen calculated,
catching him very much off guard.
1917:  Prescott Bush joins the Skull and Bones society at Yale
University in New Haven, Connecticut.  Both his son and
grandson (George Herbert Walker Bush and George Walker Bush)
will likewise become Skull and Bones members.  Brown Brothers
Harriman boasts an exceptional number of Skull and Bones
members ('Bonesmen') during the 1930s.
November 10, 1918:  German socialists take over Berlin.
November 11, 1918:  Germany surrenders to the WW I Allies.  In
his autobiography 'I Paid Hitler', Friedrich recalls "At the
time of the Armistice and the signing of the Treaty of
Versailles, my Father and I were deeply saddened by the
spectacle of Germany's abject humiliation."  According to some
sources, the authenticity of this autobiography is now
December 7, 1918:  Armed militia of the socialist Spartacists
League come knocking on the door of the Thyssen Villa.  August
and Fritz are arrested and dragged from jail to jail across
Germany for four days.  Along the way, they are lined up in
mock executions designed to terrorize them.
Fritz's younger brother Baron Thyssen Bornemisza de Kaszon
moves to Rotterdam and becomes the principal owner of the Bank
voor Handel en Scheepvaart.
1918:  Robert Scott Lovett is elected president of Union
Pacific Railroad.  Samuel Bush is appointed to the facilities
division of the US War Industries Board, chaired by Bernard
Baruch and his assistant, Clarence Dillon.
1919:  George Herbert Walker forms W. A. Harriman & Company,
with himself as president and CEO.  W. Averell Harriman, son
of Edward Harriman, is the chairman.  Averell would later
serve as US Ambassador to the USSR in 1943-1946, as US
Secretary of Commerce in 1946-1948, and as Governor of New
York State in the 1950s.
The Dulles brothers are involved in the Versailles Treaty
negotiations after the war.  The Treaty takes crucial German
territory in the coal-producing and industrial Ruhr valley,
and decrees that Germany must pay enormous reparations.
Hitler helps form the National Socialist German Workers Party,
known as the 'Nazis'.  The group's main principles include
uniting all Germans into one nation, creating a strong central
government, and cancelling the Versailles Treaty.
1920:  Averell Harriman and George Walker gain control of the
German Hamburg-Amerika shipping line.  The deal, arranged
through the chief executive of German Hamburg-Amerika, William
Cuno, and through one of the shipping line's bankers, M. M.
'Max' Warburg.  The name of the firm is changed to American
Ship & Commerce Corporation.  After being involved in the
deal, Samuel F. Pryor of Remington Arms is named to serve on
the board of the renamed corporation.  William Cuno later
becomes a heavy contributor to Nazi Party funds.
July 29, 1921 -- Hitler becomes leader of the Nazi party.  He
is introduced for the first time as the Party's "Führer" (the
German word for 'leader').
1922 :  George Herbert Walker remains President of W. A.
Harriman & Company.  Averell Harriman opens the Berlin branch
of the firm.  A U.S. government memorandum to the Executive
Committee of the office of the Alien Property Custodian, dated
October 5, 1942, later indicates that at the time, Harriman
met with German multi-millionaire industrialist 'Fritz'
Thyssen, and that Harriman agreed at that time to set up a
bank for Thyssen in New York.  This bank would later be called
Union Banking Corporation (UBC) and would be placed under the
management of Prescott Bush.  The US government memorandum
also indicates that Thyssen's agent; H. J. Kouwenhoven, had
traveled to New York sometime prior to 1924 pursuant to these
The Model Eugenics Sterilization Law is published by Harry
Laughlin.  This law, permutations of which were adopted in
several US states, led to the sterilization of over 20,000
people.  It later served as the basis of the 1935 Nuremberg
Laws adopted by the Nazis.
October, 1923:  Fritz Thyssen visits one of Germany's great
military heroes, General Erich Ludendorff.  During the 1918
socialist rule in Berlin, Ludendorff had organized a military
resistance against the socialists, and the industrialists were
thus in great debt to him.  They discuss Germany's economic
collapse.  Thyssen was apocalyptic, fearing the worst was yet
to come.  Ludendorff disagreed.  "There is but one hope,"
Ludendorff said, "Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist
party."  Ludendorff respected Hitler immensely.  "He is the
only man who has any political sense."  Ludendorff encouraged
Thyssen to join the Nazi movement.
After hearing Hitler speak, Fritz Thyssen begins to contribute
substantial funds to the Nazi party -- initially 100,000 gold
marks (roughly $25,000).  Others in the steel and coal
industries soon followed Thyssen's lead, although none came
close to matching him.
November 9, 1923:  Perhaps emboldened by his newfound
corporate support, Hitler engineers the 'Beer Hall Putsch' --
a plot to bring down the post-WW I German government.  After
learning that Bavarian leaders would be the guests of honor at
an event taking place at a Munich beer hall, Hitler leads more
than 2,000 Storm Troopers on a march to seize them.  The
effort fails, and Hitler is sentenced to five years in prison
for treason.
1924 :  W. A. Harriman & Co invests $400,000 in setting up the
Union Banking Corporation to act in partnership with the
Thyssen-owned Bank voor Handel en Scheepvart in Holland. 
Prescott Bush, the son of Samuel Bush, is brought into the
firm by George Herbert Walker, his father-in-law, to manage
Union Banking Corporation (UBC).  UBC is now in the position
to transfer funds back and forth for Thyssen's United Steel. 
Subsequent investigators conclude that  "the Union Banking
Corporation has since its inception handled funds chiefly
supplied to it through the Dutch bank by the Thyssen interests
for American investment."  Walker and Harriman's firm
eventually sells over $50,000,000 in German bonds to American
investors, who profited enormously from the economic boom in
Coinciding with the Dawes Plan, which is discussed elsewhere
in this chapter, John Foster Dulles arranges a large loan for
Krupp.  For the loan, Dulles had called Leland Harrison,
assistant secretary of state, on a Saturday to soft-pedal the
item in the news.  Harrison was infuriated because the
department had issued a circular asking to see foreign loans
before American funds were exported.  Dulles knew, however,
that Harrison had no authority to stop the loan.  Dulles
wanted to avoid the State Department's scrutiny as to whether
German factories were producing military hardware.  At Dulles'
behest, Sullivan and Cromwell accepted the assurances of Krupp
that all military hardware had been destroyed.
Ethyl Corporation is formed jointly by Standard Oil and
General Motors.
In prison, Hitler begins writing 'Mein Kampf' (My Struggle). 
The book encapsulates Hitler's beliefs and plans for Germany's
future.  After serving only nine months in prison, however, he
is released and begins rebuilding his party.
1925:  By 1925, I.G. had established powerful allies inside
the Republican administration.  The then Secretary of
Commerce, Herbert Hoover appointed a nine-member board,
Hoover's Chemical Advisory Committee.  Seated on the committee
were Walter Teagle (Standard Oil of New Jersey), LaMotte du
Pont, Frank Blair (President of Sterling) and Henry Howard
(Vice-president of Grasselli).  Despite the extensive ties the
four had with I.G. they sat on a committee whose role was to
help America's chemical industry fight off the I.G. cartel
1926 :  Prescott Bush is promoted to Vice-President of W. A.
Harriman & Company.  August Thyssen dies at the age of 84,
leaving Fritz in control of one of the largest industrial
families in Europe.  With the aid of Clarence Dillon, of
Dillon Read, Thyssen creates the United Steel Works (USW) or
German Steel Trust, the biggest industrial conglomerate in
German history.  Through this merger, Thyssen brings Friedrich
Flick, head of another German family juggernaut, into the
US/German collaboration.  Flick owned coal and steel
industries throughout Germany and Poland, and desperately
wanted to invest into the Thyssen empire.  One of Thyssen's
and Flick's purposes in their massive corporate merger was to
suppress the new labor and socialist movements.  Dillon Read
handled the Trust's corporate banking in return for two Dillon
Read representatives being placed on the board of the German
Steel Trust.  Albert Voegler was the chief executive of the
German Steel trust, and was another indust
rialist instrumental in bringing Hitler to power.  Voegler
held directorships in Thyssen's Dutch bank and the
Hamburg-Amerika Line.  Union Banking Corporation moved into in
partnership with part of Flick's empire, Silesian Holding
Company -- Walker, Bush and Harriman owned a third of Flick's
holding company and called their holdings Consolidated
Silesian Steel Corporation.
American I.G. is founded as a holding company controlling I.G.
Farben assets in the United States.  Some of its board members
were Edsel Ford, Charles Mitchell (President of Rockefeller's
National City Bank of New York, now known as CitiBank), Walt
Teagle (President of Standard Oil), Paul Warburg (Federal
Reserve chairman and brother of Max Warburg, financier of Nazi
Germany's war effort and Director of American I.G.) and Herman
Metz, a director of the Bank of Manhattan (now Chase Manhattan
Bank), which was controlled by the Warburgs.  Three other
members of the Board of Governors for American I.G. were later
tried and convicted as German war criminals.
Allen Dulles joins Sullivan and Cromwell.
1927:  John Foster Dulles becomes a director of GAF Company
(American I.G.) until 1934.
Hitler and the Nazi party are broke.  New members and
donations were sparse after the German economic recovery. 
Desperate for cash; Hitler tells his private secretary Rudolf
Hess to 'shake down' wealthy coal tycoon and Nazi sympathizer
Emil Kirdorf.  Kirdorf indeed pays off Hitler's debt that
1928:  Hitler designs to purchase the enormous Barlow Palace
on Briennerstrasse, the most aristocratic section of Munich,
to become the Nazi national headquarters.  He tells Hess to
contact Thyssen.  After hearing the Hess appeal, Thyssen feels
it is time to give Hitler a second chance.  Through the Bank
voor Handel en Scheepvaart, Thyssen "placed Hess in possession
of the required funds" to purchase and redesign the Palace. 
Thyssen later says the amount was about 250,000 marks, but
leading Nazis would claim that the re-modeling alone cost over
800,000 marks (about $2 million in today's funds).
Hitler and Thyssen became close friends after the purchase of
what Hitler re-names 'Brown House'.
1929:  Standard Oil and I.G. Farben begin cartel negotiations
Harriman bank buys Dresser Industries, supplier of
oil-pipeline couplers to Standard and other companies. 
Prescott Bush became a director and financial czar of Dresser,
installing his Yale classmate Neil Mallon as chairman.
October 29, 1929:  The Wall Street stock market collapses,
sending Germany -- dependent on foreign trade and American
loans -- into severe depression.  Germans search for a
solution as they are cast into poverty.  The government begins
to unravel, and Hitler and his German and USA industrialist
and capitalist backers see the perfect opportunity for
capturing the attention of the German people and safeguarding
-- if not maximizing -- profits.
1930:  Dulles arranges for a wealthy Czech family, the
Petscheks, to sell their interest in Silesian Coal to George
Mernane, in order to hide the Petscheks' interest.  Dulles
then sells the shares to his friend Schacht, the Nazi economic
minister.  After the sale, Dulles becomes director of
Consolidated Silesian Steel Company, whose sole asset was
one-third interest in Upper Silesian Coal and Steel Company. 
The remainder of the shares remain controlled by Friedrich
September 14, 1930:  On election day in Germany, the Nazis
receive 6,371,000 votes, over eighteen percent of the total. 
Thus entitled to 107 seats in the German Reichstag
(parliament), the Nazis become the second largest political
party in Germany.
1931 :  W. A. Harriman merges with the British firm of Brown
Brothers.  Thatcher Brown, Prescott Bush and the two Harriman
brothers become senior partners in the new firm of Brown
Brothers Harriman.  Robert Lovett, son of Robert Scott Lovett
and a close friend of Prescott Bush, becomes a partner in the
new firm.  Lovett would later serve as Assistant Secretary for
Air during the war, as Under Secretary Of State (1947-1949),
as Deputy Secretary of Defense (1950-1951), and as Secretary
of Defense (1951-1953).
Prescott Bush runs Brown Brothers Harriman's New York office,
while the London office of the new firm is run by Thatcher
Brown.  The firm's partners include well-known Nazi
sympathizer Montagu Collet Norman, governor of the Bank of
England, and a close friend of Prescott Bush, who often stays
with the Bush family on his visits to New York.  Norman's
grandfather had been boss of Brown Brothers during the Civil
War, when Brown Brothers were directly responsible for
shipping seventy five percent of slave-produced cotton from
the south to England.
Prescott Bush and George Herbert Walker host the Third
International Congress of Eugenics.  The purpose of the event
was to call for the sterilization of fourteen million
The Bank of International Settlements is formed.
December 1931:  Fritz Thyssen officially joins the Nazi
party.  The  party is rapidly gaining critical mass in
September 1932:  Thyssen invited an elite group of German
industrial tycoons to his castle to meet with Hitler.  They
spent hours questioning Hitler, who reportedly answers all
their questions with the'"utmost satisfaction," as Thyssen
later remembers.  Industrialist money pours into Nazi campaign
November 1932:  Under the slogan "Freedom and Bread," Hitler
runs against Paul von Hindenburg for the German presidency. 
Hindenburg wins, but not by an absolute majority.
, so a re-election takes place on April 12th.  Though Hitler
and the Nazis are very popular, Hindenburg, 85, is elected to
another seven-year term.
January 4, 1933:  Hitler is invited to the Schroeder Bank by a
group of industrialists.  The industrialists gave Hitler the
money to overcome his financial problems, in turn for a pledge
to break the German trade unions.  Present at this meeting
were two Americans -- John Foster Dulles and Allen Dulles.
January 30, 1933:  Von Hindenburg appoints Hitler Chancellor
of Germany, and the Nazis immediately move to seize
dictatorial power through a national emergency-based coup
d'etat.  They begin planning to burn the Reichstag and take
over the government.
March 23, 1933:  Hitler becomes dictator of Germany after his
proposed act, "Law for Removing the Distress of the People and
the Reich," is passed 441 to 84.  The law essentially suspends
freedoms, legislates democracy out of existence, and
establishes his legal dictatorship.
Max Warburg is selected by Prescott Bush to be the American
Ship & Commerce Line official representative on the board of
the Hamburg-Amerika Line.  Warburg was a long time advisor of
Hjalmar Schacht, the Nazi's Economic Minister and an executive
in the Reichsbank.  Warburg was also a close friend with
Montagu Collet Norman.
An agreement to coordinate all trade between Germany & America
was reached in Berlin after negotiations between Hitler's
Economics Minister, Hjalmar Schacht & John Foster Dulles.  As
a result Oliver Harriman, Averell's cousin, formed a syndicate
of 150 firms to conduct all business between Germany and the
United States.
North German Lloyd Co. merged with Hamburg-Amerika Line in
Hamburg.  Christian Beck, a long time Harriman, executive was
placed as manager of 'freight & operations' in North America
for this newly-merged company.  Emil Helfferich, an ardent
Nazi, was appointed chairman of this new company called
Hapag-Lloyd.  Nazi security guards were now on all ships of
the company.
William S. Farish was appointed chairman of Standard Oil by
John D. Rockefeller.  Farish was close friends with Hermann
Schmitz, chairman of I.G. Farben.  Farish hired Ivy Lee, to
write pro-I.G. Farben and pro-Nazi propaganda and get it into
the U.S. press.  He hired Nazi German crews for Standard Oil
tankers.  In addition, he hired "Emil Helfferich," chairman of
the Hamburg-Amerika Line, as chairman also of the Standard Oil
Company subsidiary in Germany.  Karl Lindemann, board member
of Hamburg-Amerika, also became a top Farish-Standard
executive in Germany.  The interlock placed Farish and
Prescott Bush in a small group of Hitler supporters.  Both
Emil Helfferich and Karl Lindemann were authorized to write
checks to Heinrich Himmler, chief of the Nazi SS, on a special
Standard Oil account.  This account was managed by the
German-British-American banker, Kurt von Schroeder.  According
to U.S. intelligence documents reviewed by author Anthony
Sutton, Helfferich continued his payme
nts to the SS into 1944, when the SS was supervising the mass
murder at Standard-I.G. Farben's Auschwitz and other death
camps.  Helfferich told Allied interrogators after the war
that these were not his personal contributions -- they were
corporate Standard Oil funds.
March 19, 1934:  Prescott Bush reportedly hands Averell
Harriman a copy of that day's New York Times: The Polish
government is applying to take over Consolidated Silesian
Steel Corporation and Upper Silesian Coal and Steel Company
from'"German and American interests" because of rampant
"mismanagement, excessive borrowing, fictitious bookkeeping
and gambling in securities."  The Poles require the owners of
the company, which accounted for over 45% of Poland's steel
production, to pay at least their full share of back taxes. 
Bush and Harriman eventually hire attorney John Foster Dulles
to help cover up any improprieties that might arise under
investigative scrutiny.
August 2, 1934 -- Hitler is now head of a one-party fascist
German state, and thus officially assumes the title of German
1934:  The US Senate Nye Committee hearings revealed Samuel
Pryor, chairman of Remington Arms & founding director of both
the UBC & the American Ship & Commerce Corp. had joined in a
cartel agreement with I.G. Farben.  The committee also
uncovered that the Nazis were armed with mostly American arms.
E. W. Webb, president of Ethyl Corporation was advised that
Washington had learned of the intention of "forming a German
company with the I.G. to manufacture ethyl lead in Germany. 
The War Department indicated that there was considerable
criticism of this technological transfer.  The Ethyl Company
was then advised by the Army Air Corps that "under no
conditions should you or the Board of Directors of the Ethyl
Gasoline Corporation disclose any secrets or 'know-how' in
connection with the manufacture of tetraethyl lead to Germany.
With Hitler in solid control of Germany, the profits from the
Thyssen-Flick union soar to over a hundred million dollars a
year.  Both Union Bank and the Bank voor Handel en Scheepvaart
are overflowing with money.  Prescott Bush becomes managing
director of Union Banking Corporation and takes over the
day-to-day operations of the German plan.
John Foster Dulles was publicly supporting the Nazi
philosophy.  In 1935, he wrote a long article for the Atlantic
Monthly entitled "The Road to Peace."  He excused Germany's
secret rearmament as an action taking back their freedom. 
Knowing what he did about Inco and Germany's munitions
industry, Dulles was misleading in asserting Germany's,
Italy's, and Japan's desires for peace.  Later in the 1930s,
Dulles helped organize the American First group.  A month
before Pearl Harbor he donated $500 to the group.  Later he
would claim no association with the group.  Dulles continued
his support of the Nazi line right up to the time Germany
invaded Poland.  Dulles' excuse for the Poland invasion was
much like blaming the victim for the crime.
1935:  The German Nazi party and fascist government pass the
Nuremberg Laws, persecuting the German Jews.
Ethyl Corporation signed a joint production agreement with
I.G. Farben in Germany to form Ethyl G.m.b.H. and with
Montecatini in fascist Italy for the production of tetraethyl
lead.  The directors of Ethyl Gasoline Corporation at the time
of this transfer: E.W. Webb, president and director; C.F.
Kettering; R.P. Russell; W.C. Teagle, Standard Oil of New
Jersey and trustee of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's Georgia Warm
Springs Foundation; F. A. Howard; E. M. Clark, Standard Oil of
New Jersey; A. P. Sloan, Jr.; D. Brown; J. T. Smith; and W.S.
Parish of Standard Oil of New Jersey.
John Foster Dulles narrowly misses being indicted in a case
involving Union Electric Company of Missouri, a subsidiary of
the North America Company.  The Securites & Exchange
Commission had discovered the company operated a slush fund to
bribe legislators.  The fund received kickbacks from its local
lawyers and an insurance company.  The firm had bribed the
entire Missouri legislature.  SEC general counsel Travis Lane
cynically attributed that the failure to the grand jury to
indict Dulles was due to his 'charm'.
The Nuremberg Laws are passed in Germany, paving the way for
the Holocaust.
1936:  The Schroeder Bank in New York merges with the
Rockefellers to form Schroeder, Rockefeller & Company, Inc. 
Carlton P. Fuller of Schroeder Banking Corporation became
president and Avery Rockefeller, became vice president.
1937:  By the end of January 1937, Dulles had merged all his
cloaking activities into one client account, Brown Brothers
Harriman-Schroeder Rock.  Schroeder, of course, was the Nazi
bank on whose board Dulles sat.  The 'Rock' was the
Rockefellers of Standard Oil, who were already coming under
scrutiny for their Nazi deals.  At the request of Prescott
Bush, Dulles had by now cloaked the Bush-Harriman dealings
with the Nazis.
February, 1938:  Hitler becomes commander of the German army
(Wehrmacht).  Many army officers do not trust the German
dictator, but lack the courage to oppose him.
November 9, 1938:  The Nazis execute their first mass
persecution of the Jews, reportedly destroying 7,500 Jewish
businesses, burning 267 synagogues, and murdering 91 Jews. 
The destruction later comes to be known as Kristallnacht, "the
night of broken glass."  Soon after, a dozen of the Nazi
party's most radical anti-Semites meet and decide to eliminate
Jews from German economic life.
September 1, 1939:  World War II begins when Hitler invades
Poland.  By this time, concentration camps for war-related
slave labor are being established throughout Germany, Poland,
and Russia.  However, a plan to use Soviet prisoners of war as
forced labor falls through, and the Nazis begin shipping Jews,
communists, gypsies and other "undesirables" to the
concentration camps.
The Bush-managed Consolidated Silesian Steel Corporation was
located near the Polish town of Oswiecim -- re-named Auschwitz
by the German conquerors -- and I. G. Farben decides to build
one of the slave labor camps there.  The Auschwitz camp
benefits from locally-abundant supplies of coal, which could
be processed into aviation fuel.  According to a Dutch
intelligence agent, Prescott Bush personally manages a portion
of the slave labor force in Poland.
Farish's daughter Martha married Averell Harriman's nephew,
Edward Harriman Gerry.
1940:  Allen Dulles served on the board of the Schroeder
bank.  John Foster Dulles served as the legal counsel for
Schroeder Bank.  Schroeder Bank in turn acted as a financial
arm of the Nazis.
December 7, 1941:  Pearl Harbor is bombed and war is declared.
December 13, 1941:  President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Secretary
of the Treasury Henry Morgenthau, and US Attorney General
Francis Biddle signed the Trading With the Enemy Act, which
bans any US business interests or arrangements with US enemies
of war.  Yet Prescott Bush continues with 'business as usual',
aiding the Nazi expansion in Europe and supplying massive
resources for weaponry that would eventually be turned on
American solders in combat against Germany.
January 20, 1942:  At the Wannsee conference, the Nazis
reportedly make the 'Final Solution' decision -- to
exterminate all of European Jewry.
March 25, 1942:  U.S. Assistant Attorney General Thurman
Arnold announces that Bush eugenics protege William Stamps
Farish has pleaded "no contest" to charges of criminal
conspiracy with the Nazis.  Farish had been the principal
manager of a cartel agreement between Standard Oil and I.G.
Farben to build an industrial plant to produce artificial
rubber and gasoline from coal at Auschwitz, taking advantage
of the concentration camp's supply of slave labor.
At this time, Deutsche-Amerikanische Petroleum A.G. (DAPAG),
the Standard Oil subsidiary in Germany, was 94-percent owned
by Standard Oil of New Jersey, which was represented in the
inner circles of Naziism by Karl Lindemann (director of DAPAG
and member of Himmler's Circle of Friends) and by board member
Emil Helfrich, who was an original member of the Keppler
Circle.  Karl Lindemann's connections extended into the
international banking area as director of several banks,
including the Dresdner Bank, the Deutsche Reichsbank, and the
private Nazi-oriented bank of C. Melchior & Company.
August, 1942:  Leo Crowley, the US Alien Property Custodian
ordered the seizure of all property of Hapag-Lloyd.
October 1942:  Ten months after entering World War II, as the
USA prepares its first assault against Nazi military forces,
Prescott Bush, father of George Herbert Walker Bush and
grandfather of the current President, George Walker Bush,
remains managing partner of Brown Brothers Harriman, now one
of the USA's largest brokerages and investment firms, and CEO
of Union Banking Corporation, where he managerially controls
the Consolidated Silesian Steel Corporation.  His 18-year-old
son George Herbert Walker Bush, the future U.S. President, is
in training to become a US navy fighter pilot.
October 20, 1942:  The US Government's Alien Property
Custodian seizes the stock shares of the Union Banking
Corporation, whose shareholders at the time were:
Prescott S. Bush -- senior managing partner in the firm on
behalf of E. Roland Harriman and Averell Harriman.   Averell
will later hold many public offices, including Governor of New
York State.
E. Rowland ("Bunny") Harriman
Cornelis Lievense (banking functionary for the Nazis)
Harold D. Pennington (of Brown Brothers Harriman)
Ray Morris (of Brown Brothers Harriman)
Johann G. Groeninger (An industrial Exec. In Nazi Germany).
H.J. Kouwenhoven (As financial emissary of Fritz Thyssen, and
in mid-1920's negotiations with George Walker and Averell
Harriman, Kouwenhoven founded the UBC.  He was also managing
director of UBC's Netherlands affiliate under Nazi occupation,
and director and chief foreign financial executive of the
German Steel Trust)
During the same month, the United States government seizes two
additional companies: Seamless Steel Equipment Corp. &
Holland-American Trading Corp.,
The seizure orders described this stock and assets thusly: 
"all of which shares are held for the benefit of ... members
of the Thyssen family, [and therefore] property of nationals
... of a designated enemy country ..."
October 26, 1942:  Only six days after the
Bush/Harriman/Thyssen stock seizures, U.S. troops are under
way for their first direct ground combat with the German army
in North Africa.
October 28, 1942:  The US government issues orders seizing two
Nazi front organizations run by UBC; the Holland-American
Trading Corporation and the Seamless Steel Equipment
Corporation, both of which are under Prescott Bush's
November 8, 1942 -- U.S. forces land under heavy Nazi fire
near Algiers, North Africa; heavy combat rages throughout
November.  Further Bush-Nazi interests in the
Silesian-American Corporation, which has long been managed by
Prescott Bush and his father-in-law George Herbert Walker, are
seized under the Trading with the Enemy Act on November 17,
1942.  In this action, however, the government announces that
it is seizing only the Nazi interests, leaving the Nazis' U.S.
partners -- including Bush and the Harrimans -- to carry on
the business.
These and other actions taken by the U.S. government in
wartime were, tragically, too little and too late.  The Bush
Presidents' father and grandfather, Prescott Bush, had already
played a central role in financing and arming Adolf Hitler for
his takeover of Germany; in financing and managing the buildup
of Nazi war industries for the conquest of Europe and war
against the U.S.A.; and in the development of Nazi 'eugenic'
genocide theories and racial propaganda, with their well-known
Bush's share holdings in UBC will later be returned to him. 
In fact, Thyssen's and the other holders' ownership shares are
eventually returned too.  Today, the Thyssen group has
absorbed Krupp Steel -- another notorious WW II user of
concentration camp slave labor -- and ThyssenKrupp is the
largest industrial conglomerate in Germany.
1943:  Though he retains ownership of his UBC stock, Prescott
Bush resigns as CEO of the banking firm.  But politicians
don't bite the hand that feeds them ... in an indication of
his and his financial cronies' continued steadfast support at
the highest levels of US government, Bush is immediately
'rehabilitated', subsequently becomes chairman of the National
War Fund, and.helps to raise millions for dozens of
war-related causes.
July 20, 1944:  A few weeks after Allied forces invade Europe,
several high military and civilian officials, including Field
Marshal Erwin von Witzleben and the mayor of Leipzig, try to
assassinate Hitler with a bomb.  Hitler is injured, but not
March 19, 1945:  As the Red Army approaches Berlin, Hitler
orders the destruction of what remains of German industry,
communications and transport systems, in the belief that if he
does not survive Germany should also perish.
April 30, 1945:  Ten days after his 56th birthday, Hitler
commits suicide in his Berlin bunker.  The day before, he
marries his mistress, Eva Braun, and issues a last statement:
"I charge the leaders of the nation and those under them to
scrupulous observance of the laws of race, and to merciless
opposition to the universal poisoner of all peoples,
international Jewry."
June 7, 1945 -- Nazi Germany surrenders.
1945:  The U.S. Treasury Department revealed to congress that
United Steel produced the following percentages of war
munitions for the Nazis: Pig iron 50.8%; Pipe & tubes 45.5%;
Universal plate 41.4%; Galvanized sheet 38.5%; Heavy plate
36%; Explosives 35%; Wire 22.1%.  This is the same firm
Prescott Bush acted as banker for.  In effect, Prescott was
Hitler's American banker.
Allen Dulles seeks out a young Naval Officer, raised a Quaker,
who had been put in charge of some captured Nazi documents. 
If the documents had surfaced, it would have revealed Dulles
as a traitor.  In a deal to bury the documents, Dulles agreed
to finance the young man's first political race on a platform
of anti-communism.  This was the beginning of the political
career of Richard Milhaus Nixon.
Project Paperclip begins to import Nazis into the United
1946:  Nixon defeats Jerry Voohris for congress with the help
of an influx of money from New York centered banks.
1947:  Following the war, authorities seeking to locate the
Dutch Royal family's jewelry discover the transaction papers
of the Silesian American Corporation in the books of Bank voor
Handel en Scheepvaart.  The bank manager, H. J. Kounhoven,
comes under intense scrutiny and is quoted as being "shocked"
by the discovery.  Kounhoven subsequently travels to New York
to inform Prescott Bush of the investigation.  Two weeks
later, the otherwise healthy Dutch banker dies of a heart
1948:  Fritz Thyssen's life is in ruins. He has been jailed by
the Nazis, jailed by the Allies, and interrogated by US
investigators.  Thyssen and Flick are ordered to pay
reparations, and serve time in prison.
1950:  Prescott Bush is defeated in his first political race,
due to his background association with the American eugenics
February 8, 1951:  Fritz Thyssen dies in exile in Argentina at
the age of 78.  The Alien Property Custodian releases the
assets of the Union Banking Corporation to Brown Brothers
Harriman.  The remaining stockholders cash in their stock,
quietly liquidating the rest of UBC's blood money.  Prescott
Bush receives $1.5 million for his UBC holding.  Bush uses
that money to help his son, George Herbert Walker Bush, set up
his first royalty firm, Overby Development Company, that same
1952:  Prescott Bush is elected to the U.S. Senate, and is
instrumental in the Republican Party's selection of Richard
Milhaus Nixon as vice presidential candidate.
1953:  John Foster Dulles is appointed Secretary of State.
Allen Dulles appointed Director of the CIA.
With money from Brown Brothers and Harriman, George Herbert
Walker Bush forms Zapata Petroleum, a front for the CIA.
1954:  The CIA, under the direction of Allen Dulles, helps
plan a coup against Jacobo Arbenz in Guatemala to aid the
United Fruit Company ('Chiquita Banana').  Schroeder Bank is
partnered with United Fruit in the banana business.  Allen
Dulles is a sitting board member of Schroeder Bank.  Both John
Foster Dulles and Allen Dulles have investments in firms which
have heavily capitalized United Fruit.  In addition, the
American ambassador at the UN is a stockholder of United
Fruit, and President Dwight Eisenhower's personal secretary is
the wife of United Fruit's public relations director.  The
Dulles brothers convince Eisenhower that Arbenz is a threat to
American national security, and get his approval to develop a
plan to get rid of the Guatemalan President.
1961:  C. Dillon appointed Secretary of Treasury.
The Bay of Pigs fiasco.  Two of the ships were named Houston
and Barbara.  The CIA code name for the Bay of Pigs was
Operation Zapata, tying George H.W. Bush to the operation. 
Additionally in 1981, the year before George Bush was elected
vice president, all of the SEC records for Zapata Petroleum
from between 1960 and 1966 disappeared.
John Kennedy fires Allen Dulles after the Bay of Pigs.
1963:  John F. Kennedy signs legislation returning to the
government of the USA the right to mint its own currency, a
direct affront to the 50-year-old privately-held Federal
Reserve banking cartel.
Kennedy is assassinated.  Sources later implicate Cuban and
Cuban-American elements in the CIA and/or affiliated with the
Cosa Nostra (Italian Mafia), who were disenchanted with
Kennedy's decision not to support the failed Bay of Pigs
invasion with air power.  The Cosa Nostra had lost enormous
gambling interests during Castro's takeover of Cuba, and were
anxious to re-establish the gambling industry there.  However,
other sources and rumors point in the direction of US
capitalist interests threatened by Kennedy's currency reform
initiative.  Later reports indicate that numerous big-money
'contracts' on Kennedy's life were circulating widely in the
CIA/Cosa Nostra 'soldier of fortune' culture of mercenaries
and 'hit-men' at the time.
On the very day of Kennedy's assassination, George Herbert
Walker Bush, in Houston, is reportedly heard to speculate on
that possibility, saying that he knows of people who want
Kennedy killed.
1964:  George Bush campaigns against the Civil Rights Act in
his bid for election.  He loses the election.
1966:  George Herbert Walker Bush is elected to congress.
1968:  Richard Milhaus Nixon elected President.
1969:  Zapata attempts to buy out United Fruit ,another
company with strong ties to the CIA and involved in the
overthrow of reformed-minded Central American countries.
1969:  George Herbert Walker Bush tells the House of
Representatives that unless the menace of human population
growth is "recognized and made manageable, starvation,
pestilence and war will solve it for us."  Bush repeatedly
compares population growth to a disease.  In remarks to the
House July 30, 1969, he likens the fight against the polio
virus to the crusade to reduce the world's population.  Urging
the federal government to step up population control efforts,
he said: "We have a clear precedent: When the Salk vaccine was
discovered, large-scale programs were undertaken to distribute
it.  I see no reason why similar programs of education and
family planning assistance should not be instituted in the
United States on a massive scope."
Congressman Bush helps found, then chairs, the Republican Task
Force on Earth Resources and Population,.which churns out a
steady stream of propaganda claiming the world is already
seriously overpopulated.  The task force tries to rehabilitate
the eugenics movement, seeking to accredit the idea that the
human race was being "down bred," or reduced in genetic
quality.  A kind of 'Malthusian vanguard' organization, they
hear testimony from "race scientist" William Shockley at
Bush's invitation, pointing up the arrogance of Bush's
commitment to eugenics.
Shockley had caused a furor during the 1960's by advancing his
thesis, already repeatedly disproven, that blacks were
genetically inferior to whites in cognitive faculties and
intelligence.  In the same year in which Bush invited him to
appear before the GOP task force, Shockley had written: "Our
nobly intended welfare programs may be encouraging dysgenics
-- retrogressive evolution through disproportionate
reproduction of the genetically disadvantaged ... We fear that
'fatuous beliefs' in the power of welfare money, unaided by
eugenic foresight, may contribute to a decline of human
quality for all segments of society."  Shockley advocated a
program of mass sterilization of the unfit and mentally
defective, which he called his "Bonus Sterilization Plan." The
special target of Shockley's prescriptions for mass
sterilizations were blacks, whom he saw as reproducing too
fast.  "If those blacks with the least amount of Caucasian
genes are in fact the most prolific and the least intell
igent, then genetic enslavement will be the destiny of their
next generation," he wrote.  Looking at the recent past,
Shockley said in 1967: "The lesson to be drawn from Nazi
history is the value of free speech, not that eugenics is
1971:  George Bush is appointed as ambassador to the United
Nixon reverses Kennedy's currency initiative, and takes the
dollar off the gold standard.  Henceforth, the dollar is no
longer backed with precious metals, but rather -- in effect --
by the USA's control over the world's capitalist means of
production, especially the oil industry.
1971:  In a published article, longtime Bush family eugenics
protege William Draper likens the developing nations to an
"animal reserve", where, when the animals become too numerous,
the park rangers "arbitrarily reduce one or another species as
necessary to preserve the balanced environment for all other
animals.  "But who will be the park ranger for the human
race?",' he asked.  "Who will cull out the surplus in this
country or that country when the pressure of too many people
and too few resources increases beyond endurance?  Will the
death-dealing Horsemen of the Apocalypse -- war in its modern
nuclear dress, hunger haunting half the human race, and
disease -- will the gaunt and forbidding Horsemen become Park
Ranger for the two-legged animal called man?''
1972:  The Watergate scandal erupts during Nixon's reelection
George Bush appointed chairman of the Republican Party.  Bush
proceeds to set up the ethnic heritage groups in the party. 
In short, these groups are nothing more than a haven for Nazi
émigrés from Eastern Europe.  Members of the Republican
Heritage Groups Council includ Lazlo Paszor, a Hungary Arrow
Cross member, Radi Slavoff, a Bulgarian fascist, Nicolas
Nazarenko, a former SS officer in the Cossack Division,
Florian Gaddu, a Romanian Iron Guard member, and Method Balco,
a  Slovakian fascist.  Both Allen Dulles and Nixon believed
these émigrés were useful in getting out the vote.
1973:  OPEC raises oil prices, engendering massive economic
upsets and gasoline shortages.  This will later result in the
USA 'making the Saudis an offer they can't refuse' -- either
accept only dollars for the purchase of crude oil, or lose US
military protection.  The House of Saud and OPEC decide they
don't want their governments overthrown, and the 'petrodollar'
is created, making trafficking in crude oil the primary
commercial valuation behind the dollar.
1975:  Colby reveals information about secret domestic
operations by the CIA: 'Mockingbird', 'Mk-Ultra'. Cheney seeks
Colby's removal.
1976:  George Bush is appointed CIA director by President
Gerald Ford, a former member of the pro-Nazi group, American
George Bush allowed the execution of Chilean dissident Orlando
Letelier by the fascist regime of Pinochet.  Bush was fully
informed of the operation of the Chilean Operation Condor
program to execute dissidents.  Operation Condor was an
extensive operation by several South American countries led by
Chile to conduct worldwide assassinations of dissidents to the
fascist military regimes in South America.
1980:  George Bush is elected vice president, and places his
father's family inheritance in a blind trust.  The trust is
managed by his old friend and quail-hunting partner, William
"Stamps" Farish III.  Bush's choice of Farish to manage his
patriarchal wealth is quite revealing -- it demonstrates that
the former president might know exactly where some of his
inheritance originated.
1984:  Arbusto Energy Inc, having been founded by George W
Bush, is sold after financial failure.
1988:  Silverado Banking Savings & Loan is shut down by
regulators.  Neil Bush, son of the Vice President and
candidate for President, was a director.  The seizure and
investigation had been delayed to after the election.
Fred Malek, a well-known Nazi collaborator, was part of Bush's
campaign for President.  Malek would again serve Bush in his
1992 race for reelection.  Several Bush campaign staffers
forced to resign after it was disclosed they were ex-Nazi war
criminals including Laszlo Pastor and Yaroslav Stetsko.
William Draper serves as head of Bush's campaign
fund-raising.  Draper's grandfather had founded the Pioneer
Fund to promote eugenics.
1989:  George Bush takes oath of office as President.  He
places his assets in a blind trust managed by William Farish,
grandson of the Wiliam Farish that supplied Hitler with Zyklon
B gas.
1990:  Following the Gulf War, Bahrain awarded an offshore
drilling contract to Harken Oil; a firm affiliated with George
W. Bush the son of the President.  George W. sells his stake
in Harken and one week later the share price collapses.
1992:  George Bush pardons all of the principal players in the
Iran-Contra scandal.
1996:  George Bush, the 'poppy' praises Sun Myung Moon in
Buenos Aires.  The Moon organization is full of ex-Nazis and
is closely affiliated with the World Anti-Communist League,
which is also full of ex-Nazis.
2000:  George W. Bush appointed President by 5-4 vote of the
U.S. Supreme Court.
2001:  The USA PATRIOT Act passes restricting our
constitutional freedoms at the urging of George W. Bush.
2003:  George Walker Bush, during an official state visit to
Auschwitz, utters the immortal words 'History tells us what's
Over the course of his lifetime Benito Mussolini (1883-1945)
went from Socialism -- he was editor of Avanti, a socialist
newspaper -- to the leadership of a new political movement
called "fascism" [after "fasces", the symbol of bound sticks
used as a totem of power in ancient Rome]
It was Benito Mussolini who said:  "Fascism should more
appropriately be called Corporatism, because it is a merger of
State and corporate power."
"The foundation of Fascism is the conception of the State, its
character, its duty, and its aim.  Fascism conceives of the
State as an absolute, in comparison with which all individuals
or groups are relative, only to be conceived of in their
relation to the State.  The conception of the Liberal State is
not that of a directing force, guiding the play and
development, both material and spiritual, of a collective
body, but merely a force limited to the function of recording
results: on the other hand, the Fascist State is itself
conscious and has itself a will and a personality -- thus it
may be called the "ethic" State ...
"...The Fascist State organizes the nation, but leaves a
sufficient margin of liberty to the individual; the latter is
deprived of all useless and possibly harmful freedom, but
retains what is essential; the deciding power in this question
cannot be the individual, but the State alone ...
"... For Fascism, the growth of empire, that is to say the
expansion of the nation, is an essential manifestation of
vitality, and its opposite a sign of decadence.  Peoples which
are rising, or rising again after a period of decadence, are
always imperialist; and renunciation is a sign of decay and of
death.  Fascism is the doctrine best adapted to represent the
tendencies and the aspirations of a people ... who are rising
again after many centuries of abasement and foreign servitude.
"But empire demands discipline, the coordination of all forces
and a deeply felt sense of duty and sacrifice: this fact
explains many aspects of the practical working of the regime,
the character of many forces in the State, and the necessarily
severe measures which must be taken against those who would
oppose this spontaneous and inevitable movement ... and would
oppose it by recalling the outworn ideology of the nineteenth
century -- repudiated wheresoever there has been the courage
to undertake great experiments of social and political
transformation; for never before has the nation stood more in
need of authority, of direction and order.
"If every age has its own characteristic doctrine, there are a
thousand signs which point to Fascism as the characteristic
doctrine of our time.  For if a doctrine must be a living
thing, this is proved by the fact that Fascism has created a
living faith; and that this faith is very powerful in the
minds of men is demonstrated by those who have suffered and
died for it."   <---- next eight paragraphs
taken from this page
One of the reasons we have such difficulty perceiving our
current conditions is our aversion to this single word:
fascism.  While there is no hesitation by politicians to draw
parallels with the Holocaust to justify whatever foreign
adventure appeals to them, or for the media to make similar
analogies at the drop of swastika on a wall, we seem only able
to understand -- or even mention -- the climax of fascism
rather than its genesis.  Why this reluctance?  Perhaps it is
because we are much closer to the latter than to the former.
In any case, it is one of the most dangerous forms of
political myopia in which to indulge.  Italians, who invented
the term fascism, also called it the 'estato corporativo': the
corporatist state.  Orwell rightly described fascism as being
an extension of capitalism.  It is an economy in which the
government serves the interests of oligopolies, a state in
which large corporations have the powers that in a democracy
devolve to the citizen.  Today, it is no exaggeration to call
our economy corporatist, which has been described by British
academics R.E. Pahl and J. T. Winkler as a system in which the
government guides privately owned businesses towards order,
unity, nationalism and success."
"Let us not mince words, they said.  "Corporatism is fascism
with a human face."  The Nazis had their own word for it:
wehrwirtschaft, semantically linking wehr (for defense,
bulwark, weapon) with wirtshaft (for housekeeping, domestic
economy, husbandry) to describe an economy based on the
assumption of warfare.  The concept was not new, however.
William L. Shirer points out in 'The Rise and the Fall of the
Third Reich' that 18th and 19th century Prussia devoted 70% of
its revenue to the army and "that nation's whole economy was
always regarded as primarily an instrument not of the people's
welfare but of military policy."  In Hitler's Germany even the
pogroms were part of national economic planning, seizing
Jewish shops and companies and replacing Jewish workers with
the Aryan unemployed.
Hitler argued that "private enterprise cannot be maintained in
a democracy", and denounced "the freedom to starve", in a
country which had known as many as six million without jobs. 
Wrote Shirer, "In taking away that last freedom, Hitler
assured himself of the support of the working class."
The link between business and fascism was clear to German
corporatists.  Auschwitz was not just a way to get rid of
Jews, it was also a major source of cheap labor [and of Bush
family profits. -- JW].  As Richard Rubenstein points out in
The Cunning of History, "I.G. Farben's decision to locate at
Auschwitz was based upon the very same criteria by which
contemporary multinational corporations relocate their plants
-- in utter indifference to the social consequences of such
moves."  I.G. Farben invested over a billion dollars in
today's money at Auschwitz and, thanks to the endless supply
of labor, adopted a policy of deliberately working the Jewish
slaves to death.
In such ways do economics and freedom become intertwined. 
Those who think it can't happen here should consider that four
days before Mussolini became premier, he met with a group of
industrialists and assured them that his aim "was to
reestablish discipline within the factories and that no
outlandish experiments .... would be carried out."  In
Friendly Fascism, Bertram Gross notes that Mussolini also won
"the friendship, support or qualified approval" of the
American ambassador, Cornelius Vanderbilt, Thomas Lamont, many
newspapers and magazine publishers, the majority of business
journals, and quite a sprinkling of liberals, including some
associated with both the Nation and The New Republic."
Orwell understood fascism.  One of the characteristics of his
'1984' inner party, the ten percent who controlled the rest,
was that there was no sexual or racial discrimination.  He
understood that ethnic eradication, while characteristic of
nazism, was not required for fascism.  Even earlier, Aldous
Huxley set up a similar non-discriminatory dystopia in 'Brave
New World'.
In fact, one of the characteristics of the modern propaganda
state is the use of ethnic and sexual iconography to cover its
tracks.  Thus Richard Nixon was slurring Jews in Oval Office
conversations even as he set a new record in their high-level
appointments.  And William J. Clinton was called 'our first
black president' by Toni Morrison even as the government was
sending young black males to prison in unprecedented numbers.
This piece was assembled by -- John Wilmerding  Coalition for
Equity-Restorative Justice (CERJ) 
Ra Energy Fdn. 
Raleigh Myers 

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Richard Moore (rkm)
Wexford, Ireland

"Global Transformation: Whey We Need It And How We Can Achieve It", current 
    "...the Patriot Act followed 9-11 as smoothly as the
      suspension of the Weimar constitution followed the
      Reichstag fire."  
      - Srdja Trifkovic

    There is not a problem with the system.
    The system is the problem.

    Faith in ourselves - not gods, ideologies, leaders, or programs.
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