Chapter 6, Seeds of Destruction, F. William Engdahl (excerpts)HUMAN GUINEA PIGS
Years before Henry Kissinger  and Brent Scowcroft made population reduction the official foreign policy of the United States Government, the Rockefeller brothers, in particular John D. Rockefeller III, or JDR III as we was affectionately known, were busy experimenting on human guinea pigs… JDR III made Puerto Rico into a huge laboratory to test his ideas on mass population control beginning in the 1950’s. By 1965, an estimated 35% of Puerto Rico’s women of child-bearing age had been permanently sterilized, according to a study made that year by the island’s Public Health Department. The Rockefeller’s Population Council, and the U.S. Government Department of Health Education and Welfare – where brother Nelson Rockefeller was Under-Secretary – packaged the sterilization campaign. They used the spurious argument that it would protect women’s health and stabilize incomes if there were fewer mouths to feed…
“SECOND ONLY TO CONTROL OF ATOMIC WEAPONS…”
John D. III’s forced sterilization was no radical departure for the family. The Rockefeller’s had long regarded Puerto Rico as a convenient human laboratory. In 1931, the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, later renamed the Rockefeller University, financed the cancer experiments of Dr. Cornelius Rhoads  in Puerto Rico. Rhoads was no ordinary scientist. It later came out that Rhoads had deliberately infected his subjects with cancer cells to see what would happen. Eight of his subjects died. According to pathologist Cornelius Rhoads, “Purto Ricans are beyond doubt the dirtiest, laziest, most degenerate and thievish race of men ever inhabiting this sphere. What the island needs is not public health work but a tidal wave or something to totally exterminate the population. I have done my best to further the process of extermination by killing off 8…” Initially written in a confidential letter to a fellow researcher, Rhoad’s boast of killing Puerto Ricans appeared in Time magazine in February 1932 after Pedro Albizu Campos, leader of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party, gained possession of the letter and published its contents.
Rather than being tried for murder, the Rockefeller Institute scientist was asked to establish the U.S. Army Biological Warfare facilities in Maryland, Utah, and also Panama, and was later named to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, where radiation experiments were secretly conducted on prisoners, hospital patients and U.S. soldiers.
In 1961, more than a dozen decades before his policies were to become enshrined inNSSM 200, JDR III gave the second McDougall Lecture to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. Rockefeller told the listeners, “To my mind, population growth is second only to control of atomic weapons as the paramount problem of the day.” He spoke of a “cold inevitability, a certainty that is mathematical, that gives the problems posed by too-rapid population growth a somber and chilling caste indeed.” The “grim fact” of population growth, he warned, “cuts across all the basic needs of mankind and…frustrates man’s achievement of his higher needs.”
ROCKEFELLER SUPPORTS EUGENICSJDR III
grew up surrounded by eugenicists, race theorists and Malthusians at the Rockefeller Foundation such as Frederick Osborn, Henry Fairchild and Alan Gregg. For John D. III, it seemed only natural that he and others of his “class” should decide which elements of the human species survived, in order that they could have “life as we want it to be.” They saw it as being a bit like culling herds of sheep for the best of the breed.The logic of human life for the family was simple: supply and demand. As Jameson Taylor expressed it, “For Rockefeller the proper care of sheep…requires nothing more than an equalization of supply with demand. If supply – i.e., food, water and space – cannot meet demand, supply must be increased and demand must be decreased. The Rockefeller Foundation has used this two pronged approach to great effect. The supply shortage has been addressed by…advanced medical practices and increased crop yields. The demand problem has been solved by culling the herd via birth control and abortion.” For most Americans and for most of the world, the idea that the leading policy circles of the United States Government, acting on the behest of some of its wealthiest families and most influential universities, would deliberately promote the mass covert sterilization of entire population groups was too far fetched to accept.
Few realized that individuals with names such as Rockefeller, Harriman, banker J.P. Morgan Jr., Mary Duke Biddle of the tobacco family, Cleveland Dodge, John Harvey Kellogg from the breakfast cereal fortune,Clarence Gamble of Proctor & Gamble  were quietly funding eugenics as members of the American Eugenics Society. They had also been financing experiments involving forced sterilization of “inferior people” and various forms of population control as early as World War 1. Their counterparts in the English Eugenics Society at the time included the British Chancellor of the Exchequer, Winston Churchill, economist John Maynard Keynes, Aurthur Lord Balfour and Julian Huxley, who went on to be the first head of UNESCO after the war .
COMBATING THE ‘HUMAN CANCER’ …
One man served as head of the Medical Division of the Rockefeller Foundation for more than 34 years. His name was Alan Gregg .An all but unknown person to the outside world…Gregg wielded tremendous influence. He was Vice President of the Foundation on his retirement in 1956, and his ideology pervaded the institute decades after. It was an ideology of Malthusian brutality and rascist finality. Gregg once wrote in an article for a scientific journal on population, “There is an alarming parallel between the growth of a cancer in the body of an organism and the growth of human population in the earth ecological economy.” He then asserted that “cancerous growths demand food, but so far as I know, they have never been cured by getting it. The analogies can be found in our plundered planet.” This was a formulation which translated as, “people pollute, so eliminate pollution by eliminating people…”
Gregg then went on, in a paper commissioned by Science, one of the most eminent scientific journals in the U.S., to observe, “how nearly the slums of our great cities resemble the necrosis of tumours.” And this “raised the whimsical query: Which is the more offensive to decency and beauty, slums or the fetid detritus of a growing tumour?”
THE ROCKEFELLERS’ DARKER SECRETS
The role of the Rockefeller Foundation in U.S. and global population policy was not accidental, nor was it a minor aspect of the institution’s mission. It was at the very heart of it. This population policy role was the key to understanding the later engagement of the Foundation in the revolution in biotechnology and plant genetics .
In 1913, the founder of the Standard Oil trust, John D. Rockefeller Sr., was advised to hide his wealth behind a tax-exempt foundation. That year Congress had passed the first federal income tax, and the Rockefeller family and other wealthy Americans such as the steel magnate, Andrew Carnegie, were enraged at what they deemed illegal theft of justly-earned gains. As Carnegie put it at the time, wealth passing through the hands of the few can be made a much more potent force for the elevation of our race [sic] than if distributed in small sums to the people themselves.” In so many words, money should only belong to the very wealthy, who know best how to use it. The newly-established Rockefeller Foundation’s stated mission was “to promote the wellbeing of mankind throughout the world.” It went without saying that the foundation alone, and the Rockefeller family, would decide just what “promoting the wellbeing of mankind” entailed.
From its inception, the Rockefeller Foundation was focussed on culling the herd, or systematically reducing populations of “inferior” breeds…
THE ‘BEST OF BREED’ – EUGENICS AND THE ‘MASTER RACE’
One of the first philanthropic projects undertaken by the Rockefeller Foundation in the 1920’s was to fund the American Eugenics Society, and the Eugenics Record Office at Cold Spring Harbor, New York where by 1917, John D. Rockefeller had become the world’s second largest supporter of the Harriman family. Eugenics was a pseudo-science. The word was coined in England in 1883 by Charles Darwin’s cousin, Francis Galton, and it was founded on Darwin’s 1859 work, the Origin of Species [by Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life] Darwin had imposed what he termed, “the application of the theories of Malthus to the entire vegetable and animal kingdom.” Malthus, who shortly before his death had repudiated his own theory of population, asserted in his 1798 tract, Essay on the Principles of Population, that populations tend to expand geometrically while food supply grew only arithmetically, leading to periodic famine and death to eliminate the “surplus” population… As it was defined by its sponsors, eugenics was the study of improving the “quality” of the human species, while reducing the quality of “inferior beings,” or, as Sanger put it, the “qualitative factor over the quantitative factor…in dealing with the great masses of humanity.” The title page ofEugenics Review, the journal of the Eugenics Education Society, carried the original definition of British eugenics founder, Francis Galton, Darwin’s cousin, who defined eugenics as “the science of improvement of the human race germ plasm through better breeding. Eugenics is the study of agencies under social control that may improve or impair the racial qualities of future generations, whether physically or socially.”
Contrary to popular belief, the idea of a Nordic master race was not solely a Nazi Germany fantasy. It had its very early roots in the United States of America going back to the early years of the 20th century.
The president of the prestigious Stanford University in California,David Starr Jordan  promoted the idea of “race and blood” in his 1902 book, Blood of a Nation. He claimed that poverty was an inherited genetic trait, as was talent. Education had no influence; you either “had it” or you didn’t. Two years later, in 1904 Andrew Carnegie’s Carnegie Institute had founded the major laboratory at Cold Spring Harbor, the Eugenics Record Office on wealthy Long Island, outside New York City, where millions of index cards on the bloodlines of ordinary Americans were gathered, to plan the possible removal of entire bloodlines deemed inferior. The land for the Institute was donated by railroad magnate E. H. Harriman  a form supporter of eugenics. This was eugenics, American elite style. Naturally, if the ideal was tall, blond, blue-eyed Nordic types, that meant dark-skinned Asians, Indians, Blacks, Hispanics, and others, including the sick and retarded, were deemed inferior to the eugenics goal of “best of breed.” The aim of the index card project was to map the inferior bloodlines and subject them to lifelong segregation and sterilization to “kill their bloodlines.” The sponsors were out to eliminate those they deemed “unfit.” As early as 1911, Carnegie was funding an American Breeder’s Association study on the “Best Practical Means for Cutting Off the Defective Germ-Plasm in the Human Population.”
One of the largest and most significant financial contributors for various eugenics projects soon became the Rockefeller Foundation. It poured hundreds of thousands of dollars into various eugenics and population projects, from the American Eugenics Society to Cold Spring Harbor, to the American Breeder’s Association.
One of the more prominent members of the American Eugenics Society in the early 1920’s was Dr. Paul Bowman Popenoe  a U.S. Army venereal disease specialist from World War 1, who wrote a textbook called Applied Eugenics. In sum, Popenoe said, “The first method which presents itself is execution…Its value in keeping up the standard of the race should not be underestimated.” He went on to eloquently advocate the “destruction of the individual by some adverse feature of the environment, such as excessive cold, or bacteria or by bodily deficiency.” In his book, Popenoe spoke of estimated five million Americans who would, at one point of another, end up in mental hospitals and of “five million more who are so deficient intellectually with less than 70% average intelligence, as to be in many cases, liabilities rather than assets to the race.” The book was aimed at a select, elite leadership. It was an example of what the eugenics movement termed “negative eugenics” – the systematic elimination of “inferior” beings, whether mentally inferior, physically handicapped or racially non-white.
Popenoe’s radical approach was a bit too controversial for some, but by 1927, in Buck vs. Bell, the U.S. Supreme Court, in a decision by Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes  ruled that the forced sterilization program of the State of Virginia was constitutional. In his written decision, Holmes wrote, “It is better for all the world, if instead of waiting to execute degenerate offspring for crime, or to let them starve for their imbecility, society can prevent those who are manifestly unfit from continuing their kind…Three generations of imbeciles are enough.” Holmes, one of the Supreme Court’s most influential justices, was also one of its most outspoken racists. In 1922, the aging Holmes wrote to British economist and Labour Party leading figure, Harold J. Laski, “As I have said, no doubt often, it seems to me that all society rests on the death of men. If you don’t kill ‘em one way, you kill ‘em another – or prevent them from being born. Is not the present time an illustration of Malthus?” The statement could have served as the guiding slogan of the Rockefeller Foundation eugenics efforts.
This 1927 Supreme Court decision opened the floodgates for thousands of American citizens to b e coercively sterilized or otherwise persecuted as subhuman. One Illinois mental hospital in Lincoln fed new patients milk from known tubercular cows, in the conviction that a genetically strong human specimen would be immune…
Years later, the Nazis at the Nuremberg trials quoted Holme’s words in their own defense. In the postwar world, not surprisingly, it was to no avail. The Rockefeller propaganda machine buried the reference; the victors defined the terms of peace and the truth of war.
“Calling a Spade a Spade…”
The Rockefeller enthusiasm for eugenics during the 1920’s did not stop at America’s own shores. Rockefeller Foundation money played an instrumental role in financing German eugenics during the 1920’s…In 1826 it awarded an impressive $250,000 for the creation of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Psychiatry ….
As American researcher Edwin Black and others later documented, the leading psychiatrist at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute at that time was Ernst Rudin  a man who went on to a stellar career as the architect of Adolf Hitler’s systematic program of medical eugenics. The Rockefeller-financed Rudin was named President of the World Eugenics Federation in 1932. Their platform was openly advocating the killing or sterilization of people whose heredity made them a “public burden.” The multi-talented Rudin was also head of brain research at that institute, where Hermann J. Muller an American eugenicist also funded with Rockefeller money, was employed. Later it was revealed that the institute received “brains in batches of 150-250” from victims of the Nazi euthanasia program at the Brandenburg State Hospital in the late 1930’s. The brain research was directed towards the Nazi experiments on Jews, gypsies, the mentally handicapped and other “defectives.” Rudin also led the Nazi program of forced eugenic sterilization, and was a prime architect of the 1933 Nazi Sterilization Law. Rudin and his staff, as part of the Task Force of Hereditary Experts, chaired by SS chiefHeinrich Himmler  drew up the sterilization law. Described as an “American Model” law, it was adopted iin July 1933…Declaring racial hygiene a “spiritual movement,” Rudin and his associates found a willing collaborator in Adolf Hitler. “Only through [the Fuhrer] did our dream of over thirty years, that of applying racial hygiene to society, become a reality,” Rudin said.
By 1940, thousands of Germans from old age homes and mental institutions had been systematically gassed, as had been advocated twenty years earlier in the United States by Popenoe, if with limited success. In 1940, just back from a tour of the German eugenics institutes, Leon Whitney, Executive Secretary of the Rockefeller-funded American Eugenics Society, declared of the Nazi experiments, “While we were pussy-footing around…the Germans were calling a spade a spade.”
The head of the German eugenics institute in Berlin was Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer …[who]…advocated a “total solution to the Jewish problem.” Von Verschuer’s long-time assistant was Dr. Josef Mengele  who headed human experiments at the Auschwitz concentration camp after May 1943. Von Verschuer was delighted when Mengele, who won the name “The Angel of Death” for his deadly experiments on human prisoners, was assigned to Auschwitz. Never one to place principle before pragmatism, the Rockefeller Foundation ceased its funding of most Nazi eugenics, when the Nazis invaded Poland in 1939. By that time, what had been established with their money over a period of more than fifteen years was consolidated. Alan Gregg, the Foundation’s Director of the Medical Division, was the man who was most intimately involved in the Nazi funding of eugenics at every step of the way. His division was responsible for funding the various Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes…
Leaving Mengele holding the proverbial bag, Verschuer fled Berlin before the end of the war, and avoided a Nuremberg trial. By 1946 he was writing to his old friend, the U.S. Army eugenicist Paul Popenoe, in California…Old Nazi friends managed to whitewash Verschuer’s Auschwitz past, for which all records had been conveniently destroyed.
In 1949, the Auschwitz doctor Otmar Frieiherr von Verschuer was named Corresponding Member of the American Society of Human Genetics, a new organization founded in 1948 by by leading eugenicists hiding under the banner of the less-disgraced name, genetics. The first president of the American Society of Human Genetics was Hermann Josef Muller, a Rockefeller University Fellow who had worked at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Brain Research in 1932.
JDR III’s Population Council and “Crypto-eugenics”
Eugenics was the foundation of John D. Rockefeller’s obsession with overpopulation. Given his enormous influence and the huge financial muscle of the Rockefeller Foundation to fund scientific research, it was an obsession which would have untold consequences for generations after his death… In 1931, JDR III joined the board of the Rockefeller Foundation itself. There, eugenicists like Raymond Fosdick and Frederick Osborn  founding members of thes American Eugenics Society in 1946, and was also president of the racist Pioneer Fund. With John D. Rockefeller III he would co-found the Rockefeller Population Council. During the Third Reich, Osborn had expressed his early support for sterilization effort…Osborn…personally praised the Nazi eugenic program as the “most important experiment which has ever been tried.” …
With population control, Rockefeller and others in the establishment believed they had finally found the answer to mass, efficient and effective negative eugenics. The founding meeting of the Population Council…was attended by Detlev W. Bronk, then president of both the Rockefeller Institute and the National Academy of Sciences. JDR III arranged for the conference to be sponsored under the auspices of the National Academy of Sciences to give it a quasi-scientific aura…Dr. Bronk was sympathetic to the agenda of population control. Being promoted was the same unvarnished eugenics racial ideology, veiled under the guise of world hunger and population problems.
Over the following 25 years, the Rockefeller Population Council would spend a staggering $173 million on population reduction globally, establishing itself as by far the most influential organization promoting the eugenics agenda in the world…
…At the time of the founding of Rockefeller’s Population Council, theAmerican Eugenics Society made a little-publicized move of its headquarters from Yale University directly into the offices of the Population Council in the Rockefeller Center in New York City.Rockefeller shrewdly repackaged his discredited eugenics race and class ideology as “population control.” Instead of focusing on domestic issues…he turned his sights on the entire developing world, a vast sea of humanity which stood between the Rockefeller family and the realization of their ambitious post-war designs for a new American Century.
The strategists around the Rockefeller eugenics organizations explicitly set out to pursue the same agenda as essentially von Verschuer and the Nazi eugenics crowd had, but under the deliberate strategy of what they termed “crypto-eugenics.” The key American proponent of hiding the eugenics nature of their work under the name “genetics” and “population control” was Rockefeller’s head of the Population Council, Frederick Osborn…He stressed that the reason for making birth control “equally available” should be disguised: “Measures for improving the hereditary basis of intelligence and character are most likely to be attained under a name other than eugenics…”
The architect of the American reshaping of the elitist eugenics agenda into the new garment of population control was Rockefeller’s friend and employee, Frederick Osborn… A significant problem after the Second World War was that the very name eugenics had been thoroughly associated in the public mind with Nazi racist extermination programs, the definition of a Master Race and other human atrocities…
Osborn had a ready answer: people for some reason refused to accept that they were “second rate” compared to Osborn, Rockefeller, Sanger and their “superior class.” As Osborn put it, “We have failed to take into account a trait which is almost universal and is very deep in human nature. People are simply not willing to accept the idea that the genetic base on which their character was formed is inferior and should not be repeated in the next generation…” Osborn proposed a change in packaging. Eugenics was to be mass-marketed under a new guise…
Publicly, Osborn appeared to purge eugenics in his postwar-era of earlier rascism. In reality he applied racism far more efficiently to hundreds of millions of darker-skinned citizens of the Third World. Osborn also secretly held the office of the president of the infamous white-supremacist Pioneer Fund from 1947 to 1956. Among other projects the Pioneer Fund “supported highly controversial research by a dozen scientists who believed that Blacks are genetically less intelligent than Whites…” As late as 1946, after the war and the ghastly revelations of the human experimentation in Auschwitz and other concentration camps, Osborn, then President of the American Eugenics Society, published, in his Eugenics News magazine, the so-called Geneticist’s Manifesto, entitled “Genetically Improving the World Population.” …Genetics was the new name for eugenics…
Osborn doled out strong praise for Hermann J. Muller, Ernst Rudin’s colleague in Germany, who had received Rockefeller funds during the 1930’s for eugenics research. Quoting Muller, Osborn wrote “It would in the end be far easier and more sensible to manufacture a complete new man de novo, out of appropriately chosen raw materials, than to try to refashion into human form those those pitiful relics which remained.”Osborn also praised Muller’s proposal to develop sperm banks to “make available the sperm of highly qualified donors.” The idea for a gene revolution was being debated back then. Rockefeller’sPopulation Council gave grants to leading universities including Princeton’s Office of Population headed by Rockefeller eugenicist Frank Notestein, a long-time friend of Osborn, who in 1959 became President of the Rockefeller Population Council in order to promote a science called demography. Its task was to project horrifying statistics of a world over-run with darker-skinned peoples, to prepare the ground for acceptance of international birth control programs…
In 1952…Margaret Sanger  created, thanks to Rockefeller Foundation money…the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF)…
Following the initial Rockefeller financing, her IPPF soon was backed by a corporate board which included DuPont, U.S. Sugar, David Rockefeller’s Chase Manhatten bank, Newmont Mining Co., International Nickel, RCA, Gulf Oil, and other prominent corporate members. The cream of America’s corporate and banking elite were quietly lining up behind Rockefeller’s vision of population control on a global scale. Less than a decade after the revelations of eugenics and Auschwitz population control was again becoming fashionable in certain American elite circles of the 1950’s. It was a testimony to the power of the U.S. establishment to mould public opinion and encourage fears of exploding populations of poor, hungry peasants around the world. The population control lobby which would later shape Kissinger’s NSSM 200 was consolidating around Rockefeller Foundation grants and individuals, preparing a global assault on “inferior peoples,” under the name of choice, of family planning and of averting the danger of “over-population” – a myth their think-tanks and publicity machines produced to convince the ordinary citizens of the urgency of their goals.
From Eugenics to Genetics
A colleague of Ernst Rudin, Dr. Franz J. Kallmann , was a German scientist who left Germany in 1936 when it was discovered that he was part Jewish. After the war he helped rehabilitate German eugenicist Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer and win him respectability and acceptance in the American scientific community. Kallmann’s enthusiasm for eugenics was in no way dampened by his own experience of Nazi persecution of the Jews…Kallmann was founding president of a new eugenics front organization, theAmerican Society of Human Genetics.
At the New York Psychiatric Institute, Kallmann continued the same research in genetic psychiatry he had done with Rudin in Germany.Kallmann’s American Society of Human Genetics later became a sponsor of the Human Genome Project . The multibillion dollar project was, appropriately enough, housed at the same Cold Spring Harbor center that Rockefeller, Harriman and Carnegie had used for their notorious Eugenics Research Office in the 1920’s. Genetics, as defined by the Rockefeller Foundation, would constitute the new face of eugenics.
While brother John D. III was mapping plans for global depopulation, brothers Nelson and David were busy with the business side of securing the American Century for the decades following the crisis of the 1960’s and 1970’s. American agribusiness was to play a decisive role in this project, and the development of genetic biotechnologywould bring the different efforts of the family into a coherent plan for global food control in ways simply unimaginable to most.
NOTE: the numbers are not Engdahl’s but my own…see below:
1) HENRY KISSINGER A major “architect of genocide” andOperation Paperclip
NSSM 200 full text http://wlym.com/text/NSSM200.htm
2) DR. CORNELIUS RHOADS Took the “cancer as weapon” idea into U.S. Army, Atomic Energy Commission, then Sloan-Kettering Cancer Institute
“…Dr. Rhoads was a researcher in the 1930s who worked at Rockefeller University and also in Puerto Rico. Over the years people have expressed concern over a letter he wrote while working in Puerto Rico expressing derogatory racist ideas about the local population…The letter was intended as a confidential note to a colleague in Boston. Dr. Rhoads left the document on his desk, and it was discovered the next day by a lab assistant who gave copies to colleagues as well as to Pedro Albizu Campos, head of the Puerto Rico Nationalist Party. Campos, in turn, circulated the letter to newspapers, embassies, the League of Nations, Pan American Union, American Civil Liberties Union, and the Vatican… the 1932 Time story and an earlier New York Times article were heavily influenced by none other than one of the founders of modern-day public relations spin-doctoring, Ivy Lee, who had been handling public relations for the Rockefeller family ever since the 1914 Ludlow Massacre when 24 men, women and children were killed during a labor riot at mine owned by the Rockefellers…Lee had pre-publication access to both the Time and New York Timesarticles, Dr. Lederer noted, and in both cases, Lee was able to influence sufficient editing and rewriting that the published accounts presented Rhoads’ letter as a joke that was never intended to be mailed.
3) CLARENCE GAMBLE Of Proctor & Gamble whose toothpastes contain sodium fluoride
4) UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific & Cultural Organization)
5) ALAN GREGG
6) “revolution in biotechnology”
7) DAVID STARR JORDAN (excerpt, Blood of a Nation)
8) E.H. HARRIMAN
9) Dr. PAUL BOWMAN POPENOE (on-line book Sterilization for Human Betterment)
10) OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES
11) KAISER WILHELM INSTITUTE FOR PSYCHIATRY
12) ERNST RUDIN http://jonjayray.tripod.com/sanger.html
13) HERMANN J. MULLER
14) HENIRICH HIMMLER
15) OTTMAR FREIHERR von VERSCHUER
16) Dr. JOSEF MENGELE
17) FREDERICK OSBORN
18) MARGARET SANGER